Thinking

ISBN-10: 0132209748
ISBN-13: 9780132209748
Edition: 4th 2007
List price: $103.80
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Description: This book about thinking presents readers with a systematic, practical, and friendly approach that encompasses all fields of study and business. It explores a valuable skill that will inspire and enlarge peoples ability to think through life.   More...

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Book details

List price: $103.80
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 3/21/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.946

This book about thinking presents readers with a systematic, practical, and friendly approach that encompasses all fields of study and business. It explores a valuable skill that will inspire and enlarge peoples ability to think through life. Chapter topics cover what thinking is, personal barriers, sensing, brain and memory, language, feeling, creative thinking, organizing, logical thinking, scientific thinking, persuasive thinking, problem solving, evaluating, decision and action, and the challenge to go on thinking. They draw ideas on thinking from every period of historyfrom the philosophers, poets, scientists, psychologists, linguists, and neuroscientists. For thinkers of the new millenium.

Preface
What Is Thinking?
Our Cultural Legacy
Why Think?
Thoughts Richer Than Gold
Thinking as Possibility
Thoughts Accumulate
Life Without Thinking
What Is Thinking?
The Mystery
Toward a Definition: Thinking as Communicating
Communicating: The Mirror of Thought
Thinking as Writing: Clarity, Exactness, Awareness, Richness
Thinking as Dialogue: Validation and Insight
Misthinking
Summary
Thinking Challenges
Thinking Activities
Things More Important than Thinking
Thinking, Sensing, Writing
Box
The Centrality of Thinking
Personal Barriers
Enculturation
Sources of Enculturation
Religion and Enculturation
Self-Concept
Ego Defenses
Denial
Projection
Rationalization
Self-Serving Biases
The Role of Expectations and Schemata
Emotional Influences
Anger
Passion
Depression
Striving for Cognitive Consistency
Stress
Stress Management
Summary
Barrier Challenges
Thinking Activities
An Exercise in Enculturation
The Idea of Self
Letting Go
Owning Up to Our Dark Side
Five Thinking Errors
Five Ways to Prevent Stress
Boxes
Some Common American Beliefs
Spinoza: A Man of Reason
Other Attribution Errors
Self-Serving Biases?
Signs and Symptoms of Stress
Sensing
Sensual Beginnings
The Power of Our Senses
The Deception of Our Senses
Sharpening Our Senses
Powerful Listening
The Paradox of Powerful Listening
How to Listen
Summary
Sensing and Thinking Challenges
Thinking Activities
Ideas: Innate or Learned?
Our Personal Sense Deceptions
Seeing Anew
Developing an Action Plan
Brain and Memory
The Mystery
Thinking and Our Brain
Food and Drugs
Sleep
Our Thinking Potential
Thinking and Memory
The Changing Nature of Memory
Forgetting
Why We Forget
How to Improve Memory
Summary
Brain and Memory Challenges
Thinking Activities
An Exercise in Mental Discipline
Critical Reading Before We Sleep
Memories of Childhood
Using Mnemonics
Boxes
Brain and Mind
Recall Versus Recognition
Memory Pills
Language: Our Thinking Medium
Language and our Mind
The Universalizing Power of Language
The Structuring Power of Language
Language and Society
The Metaphorical Power of Language
What Is a Metaphor?
Metaphorical Models Control Thinking
The Limitations of Language
The Power of English
Word Meanings
Word Order Creates Meaning
The Power Parts: Noun and Verb
Thinking and the Context
Clarity
The Pitfalls of English
Generalizations and Abstractions
Wordiness
Redundancies
Illogicalities
Cliches
Summary
Language Challenges
Thinking Activities
Language and Thinking
A Brief Mind Sketch
The Language In Our Mind
Identifying Our Flame Words
Boxes
Evolution of Languages and the Effect on Metaphors
Language, Lawyers, and Lawmakers
Clearly Embarrassing
High Specificity
Feeling
Feelings and Thinking
Cultural Context
Business
Church
Family
The Force Behind Our Thoughts
Beneath the Rational Surface
The Importance of Tone
Controlling Emotions
Generating Speech
Generating Writing
The Inspiration Method
The Recollection Method
The Conscious Selection Method
Feelings Toward Topic and Audience
Observing Feelings
Summary
Thinking and Feeling Challenges
Thinking Activities
Feelings Beneath Our Thoughts
Evoking Emotions
Creative Thinking
What is Creativity?
Metaphorical Thinking
Kinds of Creative Thinking
Who Can Think Creatively?
Conditions and Limitations of Creativity
Beginning to Create
Brainstorming
Starbursting
Coaxing Creativity
Desire
Knowledge and Skills
Edisonian Effort
Fermentation and Insight
Evaluation
Summary
Creating Challenges
Thinking Activities
Making Metaphors
Poetic Impressions
Prepcreation
Box
Leonardo da Vinci
Organizing
Origins of Order
Natural/Mental Orders
Topical Order
Analogical Order
Chronological Order
Causal Order
Mental Orders
Clarity and Memory
Steps In Organizing
Clustering
Analyzing
Prioritizing
Organizing Your Space
Organizing Electronic Data
Using The Orders
Summary
Organizing Challenges
Thinking Activities
Other Natural Orders?
The Order of the Elements
Other Mental Orders
Analyzing the Clusters
Creating a Seminal Structural Analogy
Logical Thinking
Deductive Thinking: The Syllogism
Categorical Syllogisms
Three Kinds of Propositions
Four Figures
Validity of Categorical Syllogisms
Enthymemes and Syllogisms In Everyday Life
Reasoning Errors in Categorical Syllogisms
Undistributed Middle
Illicit Process
The Four-Terms Fallacy
Equivocation
Existential Fallacy
Rules for The Categorical Syllogism
Hypothetical Syllogisms
Reasoning Errors in Hypothetical Syllogisms
Disjunctive Syllogisms
Reasoning Error in the Disjunctive Syllogism
Valid Conversions
Informal Deductive Fallacies
The Fallacy of Division
Circular Reasoning
The Either/Or Fallacy
Inductive Thinking
Analogical Argument
Causation
Informal Inductive Fallacies
Hasty Generalization
The Fallacy of Composition
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
Extravagant Hypothesis
False Analogy
Slippery Slope
Other Reasoning Fallacies
The Genetic Fallacy
Appeal to Authority
Appeal to Tradition
The Is/Ought Fallacy
Bandwagon Appeal
Appeal to Ignorance
Summary
Logic Challenges
Thinking Activities
Drawing the Conclusion
Finding Terms and Figures
Identifying Valid Categorical Syllogisms
Using Venn Diagrams
Finding Multiple Syllogisms and False Premises
Finding Undistributed Terms
Identifying Invalid Syllogisms
Writing Valid Conversions
Identifying the Either/Or Fallacy
Distinguishing Between Inductive and Deductive Arguments
Considering Past Errors
Using Analogies
Thinking About Causation
Boxes
The Importance of Agreed Meaning
Reductio ad Absurdum
Chuang Tzu's Analogies
Conspiracy Theories: Did We Land on the Moon?
More Thoughts About Oughts
Scientific Thinking
The Scientific Method
Observation
Hypothesis
Experimentation
Verification
Science and Other Ways of Knowing
The Empirical Nature of Science
Erroneous Operational Definitions
Operational Debates
The Limits of Science
Science and the Understanding of Human Nature
Determinism as Foundation
Human Beings and Determinism
Proving a Theory
Controlled Experiments
Quasi-Experimental Design
Nonexperimental Design
Ex Post Facto Design
Correlational Design
The Survey Method
The Case Study
The Role of Chance
Experimenter Bias
Pseudoscience
Summary
Scientific Thinking Challenges
Thinking Activities
Creating Operational Definitions
The Domain of Science
Determining the Research Design
Boxes
Copernicus and Galileo
Determinism and Probability
Opinion Versus Fact
Sizeable Effects
The Gambler's Fallacy: Don't Bet on It!
The Placebo Effect
Cases of Fraud
Persuasive Thinking
What Is Persuasion?
The Ethics of Persuasion
Thinking about What Moves US
Knowledge
Objectivity and Honesty
Biases
Likability
Motivation and Purpose
The Rational Appeal
The Emotional Appeal: The Root Elements
Thinking about What Moves Our Audience
Demographics
Values and Needs
Adjusting Our Goals
Organizing For Persuasion
Establishing Credibility
Acknowledging the Audience's Position
Constructing Our Rationale
Transplanting the Root Elements
Asking for the Response
Defending Ourselves Against Deceitful Persuasion
Manipulative Tactics
Erroneous Attacks
Abuse of Language
Summary
Persuasion Challenges
Thinking Activities
A Demographic Analysis
Identifying Values and Needs
Motivation Mountain
Recognizing the Other Side
Your Vulnerability to Fear Appeals
Box
Confucius, Christ, and Kant
Problem Solving
Defining the Problem
Discovering Causes
Problems Without a Cause
Removing Barriers
The Myth of Perfection
The Myth of Genius
Generating Solutions
Gathering Information
Creative Thinking
Let It Rest
Selecting Solutions
Preliminary Evaluation
Pros and Cons
Subgoal Analysis
Trial and Error
Working Backward
Problem-Solving Tips
Evaluating Solutions
Summary
Problem-Solving Challenges
Thinking Activities
Forming More Precise Definitions
Identifying Problem Components
Functional Fixedness
Weighing Pros and Cons
Boxes
Creating a Healthy Communication Climate
Chaotic Systems
Rejections on Minor Grounds
Thinking Backward
Evaluating
The Necessity to Test Thinking
The Crucible of Critical Dialogue
Critical Monologue
The Elegance of Simplicity
The Flattery of Imitation and Development
The Power of Predictability
Perspective, Balance, and Completeness
The Test of Time
Testing Against Our Thinking Bases
Personal Barriers
Perceptions and Memory
Language
Feelings
Creativity Check
Organization
Logic Check
Summary
Evaluation Challenges
Thinking Activities
Using Dialogue
Does Time Always Test True?
Our Tone Toward Our Thinking
Decision and Action
Why Act?
Decision
Difficulties in Deciding
How to Decide
When to Decide
The Deciding Moment
Action
After Action
Summary
Decision and Action Challenges
Thinking Activities
Feelings and Decisions
Role-Playing
Box
Changing Criteria: Putting on the Gloves
The Challenge to Go on Thinking
Propositional Logic
References
Index

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