Crime Scene Investigation and Reconstruction

ISBN-10: 013188607X

ISBN-13: 9780131886070

Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)

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Description:

This comprehensive text achieves the ultimate goal of crime scene investigation in answering What happened? Who was responsible for each action? What was the sequence of each action?nbsp;Readers see the importance of each step through authentic photos, real life cases and full coverage of crime scene reconstruction. It also includes the most recent technological advances in the forensic sciences (i.e. database technologies, digital cameras, DNA analyses, and computer-aided crime scene reconstructions). Systematically organized to follow the same sequence in which crime scenes are processed, this is one of the most informative texts of its kind available.Introduces crucial concepts regarding collecting, examining and interpreting physical evidence. Comprehensive coverage of procedural methods for crime scene searches, photography, sketching, and collecting of all major physical evidence categories. Extensive coverage of sexual assault investigations including how to collect physical evidence from the crime scene, from the victim and from the suspect. Key information regarding homicide scene investigations, including the procedures essential to the forensic autopsy. Examines the various types of physical evidence used in reconstructions.Serves as comprehensive reference for those working in law enforcement.
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Book details

List price: $91.60
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/21/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 408
Size: 8.25" wide x 11.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Foreword
Preface
Introduction to Physical Evidence
Key words
Types of Evidence
Value of Physical Evidence
Some Advantages of Physical Evidence
Major Categories of Physical Evidence
Class and Individual Characteristics of Physical Evidence
Laboratory Analysis of Physical Evidence
Comparison Standards and Controls
Ethical, Legal, and Scientific Requirements for Evidence Collection
Review Questions
Further References
Crime Scene Search Principles
Key words
Department Orders Regarding Crime Scenes
First Responder at the Scene
Crime Scene Investigator
Contact the First Officer at the Scene
Establish a Command Center for the Operation
Establish a Plan for Processing the Scene
Data to be Compiled Before Collection Process
Crime Scene Search: Be Systematic!
Separate Areas/Collectors
Systematic Search Methods
Finishing the Crime Scene Search: Debriefing
Final Survey of the Crime Scene
Review Questions
Further References
Crime Scene Processing Guidelines
Actions to be Taken by the First Responder
Actions to be Taken by the Crime Scene Investigator
Crime Scene Search
Finishing the Crime Scene Search: Debriefing
Customized Crime Scene Search Kits
Level of Crime Scene Search Kit Needed
Crime Scene Photography
Key words
Objectives of Crime Scene Photography
Number of Photographs at the Scene
Conditions at the Scene
Choice of Camera Type for Crime Scene Photography
Type of Film for Crime Scene Photography
Videotaping of Crime Scenes
Suggested Systematic Approach
Log of All Photographs Taken
Types of Photographs of a Crime Scene
Basic Camera and Photography Information
Summary
Review Questions
Further References
Basic Equipment List for Crime Scene Photography
Crime Scene Sketches
Key words
Value of Sketches
Objectives of Crime Scene Sketches
Rules of Thumb for Sketches
Additional Points to Keep in Mind
Types of Sketches
Preparation of Sketches: Suggested Systematic Procedure
Measurement Techniques
Summary
Review Questions
Latent Fingerprint Evidence
Key words
Introduction
Types of Fingerprints and Impressions
Inked Fingerprints
Latent Fingerprints
Patent Prints
Age of the Latent Fingerprint
Nature of the Latent Print Deposit
Contributions from the Skin Glands
Contributions from Contaminants
Development of Latents
General Considerations for Latent Prints
Techniques Suitable for the Crime Scene
Laser Light, Alternate Lights, and Ultraviolet Light
Development with Powder and Brush
Development with Cyanoacrylate
Processing with Small Particle Reagent (SPR)
Processing with Ninhydrin, Ninhydrin Analogues, or DFO
Sequential Approaches to Latent Impression Detection and Collection
Wet Surfaces: Dry at Room Temp; Treat as for Dry Surfaces
Sequencing of Methods for Latent Development
All Surface/Latent Deposit Combinations
Nonabsorbent Surfaces
Absorbent Surfaces
Adhesive Tapes
Fingerprints in Blood
Latent and Patent Prints on Skin
Submission of Latent Print Evidence to the Laboratory
Marking of Evidence
Collection of Elimination Prints
Submission of Inked Fingerprints for Comparisons
Preservation of Evidence
Elimination Prints
Special Considerations
Review Questions
Further References
Glossary of Acronyms for Table 5-1
Safety Precautions for Latent Print Development
General Guidelines for Safety
Guidelines for Safety at the Crime Scene
Safety Guidelines in the Laboratory
Guidelines for Biological Hazards
Guidelines for Safety at Autopsies
Trace Evidence
Key words
Trace Evidence
Hair Evidence
Nature of Hair Evidence
Significant Features of Hair
Microscopic Features of Human Hair
Other Comparison Characteristics in Hair
Laboratory Examinations of Hair Evidence
Collection of Hair Evidence
Standard/Control Specimens of Hair
Laboratory Reports Concerning Hair Examinations
Fiber Evidence
Nature of Fiber Evidence
Occurrence of Fiber Evidence
Laboratory Examinations of Fiber Evidence
Collection of Fiber Evidence
Standards/Controls Needed for Laboratory Analysis
Glass Evidence
Nature of Glass Evidence
Laboratory Examinations of Glass Evidence
Collection of Glass Evidence
Paint Evidence
Nature of Paint Evidence
Hit-and-Run Cases: Vehicle to Pedestrian
Hit-and-Run Cases: Vehicle to Vehicle
Burglary Cases
Laboratory Examinations of Paint Evidence
Laboratory Reports Concerning Paint Evidence
Collection of Paint Specimens
Soil Evidence
Nature of Soil Evidence
Laboratory Examinations of Soil Evidence
Collection of Soil Evidence
Arson Accelerant Evidence
Arson Investigations
Nature of Volatile Flammables
At the Scene
Laboratory Analysis of Accelerant Residues
Review Questions
Further References
Biological Fluid Stain Evidence: Blood and Semen
Key words
Bloodstain Evidence
Nature of Bloodstain Evidence
Genetic Markers in Bloodstains
Crime Scene Documentation of Bloodstains
Collection of Bloodstain Evidence
Blood Samples from Living Subjects
Blood Samples from Postmortem Subjects
General Comments
Laboratory Analysis of Bloodstains
DNA Analysis of Blood and Semen Stains
Semen Evidence
Nature of Semen Evidence
Occurrence of Semen Evidence
Collection of Semen Evidence
Laboratory Examinations of Semen Evidence
Review Questions
Further References
How to Make a Bindle
Safety Precautions for Blood and Biological Fluids
Firearms Evidence
Key words
Introduction
Firearm Cartridges
Bulleted Cartridges
Characteristics of Rifled Barrels
Class Characteristics of Fired Bullets
Field Comparisons of Bullet Class Characteristics
Field Estimation of Bullet Caliber
Laboratory Examinations of Firearms Evidence
Collection of Firearms Evidence
Introduction
Unloading Revolvers
Unloading Autoloading Firearms (Semiautomatics)
Trace Evidence and Fingerprints
Weapons Found in Water
Transportation to the Laboratory
Note-Taking and Evidence Marking
Recovery of Fired Ammunition Components
Bullets Embedded in Wood or Plaster
Removal of Bullets from Deceased Persons
Cartridge Cases
Shot Wads
Shot Pellets
Live Shot Shells or Cartridges
Gunshot Residues (GSR)
Introduction
Gunshot Residue Analysis in the Laboratory
Collection of Gunshot Residues
Review Questions
Further References
Class Characteristics for Some Handguns and Other Firearms
Impression Evidence
Key words
Nature of Impression Evidence
Laboratory Examinations of Impression Evidence
Examination of Footwear Impressions
Examination of Tire Tread Impressions
Examination of Toolmark Impressions
Collection of Impression Evidence
Collection of Footwear and Tire Tread Impressions
Photography of Footwear and Tire Tread Impressions
Vehicle Wheelbase and Width Measurements
Casting and Lifting of Impressions
Toolmark Evidence Collection
Special Precautions for Toolmark Evidence
Documentation of Toolmark Evidence
Fracture Evidence
Laboratory Examination of Fracture Evidence
Review Questions
Further References
Drug and Alcohol Evidence
Key words
Drug Evidence
Introduction
DEA Schedule of Controlled Substances
Collection of Drug Evidence
Field Testing of Drug Evidence
Clandestine Laboratories
Alcohol Evidence
Introduction
Tolerance to Effects of Alcohol
Evidence in Driving Under the Influence Cases
Collection and Preservation of Alcohol Specimens
Laboratory Analysis of Blood Alcohol Specimens
Review Questions
Further References
Document Evidence
Functions of the Document Examiner
Collection of Document Evidence
Review Questions
Further References
Vehicle Scene Investigations
Key words
General Automobile Search
Traffic Accident Investigations
Photographs at the Accident Scene
Accident Scene Sketches
Hit-and-Run Investigations: Vehicle Versus Pedestrian
Hit-and-Run Investigations: Vehicle Versus Vehicle
Vehicle Lights
Review Questions
Sexual Assault Investigations
Key words
Development of Modern Sexual Assault Investigation
Introduction
Role of Physical Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigations
Evidence from the Crime Scene
Evidence from the Victim
Medical Examination of the Victim
Evidence from the Suspect
Examination of Adult Male Victim of Sexual Assault
Child Sexual Abuse Examination
Indications of Child Abuse
Summary
Review Questions
Further References
Swab Drying Box
Chain of Custody Form
Seal on Chain of Custody Envelopes
Homicide Crime Scene Investigations
Key words
Introduction
Homicide Investigation Response Team (HIRT)
Additional Personnel Often Needed at Homicide Crime Scenes
At the Homicide Crime Scene
Precaution
Condition of Body/Clothing/Scene
Protection of the Body During Removal
Area Beneath the Body
Postmortem Examination (Autopsy) Guide
Preautopsy Conference
Postmortem Examination Photography
Trace Evidence
Procedures for Nude Bodies
Hair Standard Samples
Fingernail Scrapings
Gunshot Residues
Gunshot Wounds
Condition of Teeth/Dentures
Fingerprints/Palm Prints/Footprints
Sexual Assault Homicides
Vehicular Homicides
Decomposed Remains
Body Fluids and Toxicology Specimens
Wrap-Up Conference
Summary
Review Questions
Further References
Safety Precautions for Homicide Crime Scenes
Safety Precautions for Postmortem Examinations (Autopsies)
Crime Scene Reconstruction
Key words
Introduction
Establishment of Expertise
Critical Thinking
Foundations for Crime Scene Reconstruction
Process of Crime Scene Reconstruction
Types of Reconstructions
Reconstructions Classified by Evidence Type Utilized
Reconstructions Based on Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
Information Obtained from Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Bloodstains: Shoe Prints, Tracks, and Trails
Bloodstain Pattern Documentation
Reconstructions Based on Firearms Evidence
Introduction
Information Available from a Shooting Incident Reconstruction
Bullet Trajectories
Bullet Ricochets
Bullet Ricochets on Vehicles
Identification of the Firearm that Fired Each Bullet or Cartridge Case
Gunshot Residues on Suspected Shooters
Distance Characteristics of Target Residues
Laboratory Analysis of Firearm Evidence for Reconstructions
Reconstructions Based on Other Evidence Types
Direction of Force in Glass Pane Fractures
Sequence of Firearm Projectile Impacts
Evidence Showing Which Occupant of a Vehicle was the Driver
Reconstructions Involving More Than One Type of Physical Evidence
Review Questions
Further References
Crime Scene Reconstruction Checklist
At the Scene
Bloodstain Pattern Reconstructions
Firearms Shooting Incidents
Preparation for Reconstruction Effort
Crime Scene Report Writing
Introduction
Accuracy
Brevity
Clarity
Sketches/Photo Logs/Evidence Lists
Courtroom Testimony
Introduction
Courtroom Procedures
Helpful Hints for the Witness
Testimony Dos and Don'ts
Grand Juries
Forensic Science and Latent Fingerprint Texts
Physical Evidence Chart
General Instructions
Computer Evidence
Conducting the Search and/or Seizure
Entomological Evidence
Introduction
At the Scene
Glossary
Endnotes
Index
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