Atmosphere An Introduction to Meteorology

ISBN-10: 0131874624
ISBN-13: 9780131874626
Edition: 10th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $168.40
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Description: Using everyday, easy-to-grasp examples to reinforce basic concepts, this highly regarded handbook remains the standard introduction to meteorology and the atmosphere components, problems, and applications.Includes the most up-to-date coverage of  More...

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Book details

List price: $168.40
Edition: 10th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 3/27/2006
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 544
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.344
Language: English

Using everyday, easy-to-grasp examples to reinforce basic concepts, this highly regarded handbook remains the standard introduction to meteorology and the atmosphere components, problems, and applications.Includes the most up-to-date coverage of topics such as: ozone depletion; the ultraviolet index; temperature; dew point temperature and orographic effects; wildfires and weather; thunderstorms and lightning; the record-breaking Florida hurricane season; effects of air pollution, and more. Incorporates top-quality visuals, including new satellite images and illustrations by the award-winning Dennis Tasa, to demonstrate the highly visual nature of meteorology. Uses a largely non-technical writing style to help readers grasp important concepts.For those interested in learning more about meteorology. nbsp;

Fred Lutgens andEd Tarbuck have been good friends and colleagues since 1970. Between them, they have more than 57 years of experience teaching geology to undergraduates, and both have been recognized with awards as excellent and inspiring professors. They share a special interest in introducing geology to beginning students and a belief in the value of field experiences for students of all levels. Lutgens and Tarbuck published their first college text, Earth Science, In 1976. That book, winner of the McGuffy Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association, Is now going into its tenth edition. In 1983, As the first edition of Earth was being prepared, gifted geology illustrator Dennis Tasa joined the author team. Since then the three have collaborated on more than twenty projects. Not only do Tarbuck, Lutgens, and Tasa work well together creatively; they also enjoy spending time in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Tasa's New Mexico studio. Tarbuck enjoys downhill skiing in Colorado, fly fishing near his childhood home in Northern Minnesota, and spending time in the Cascades. Lutgens is an avid runner, and when he can make the time, truly enjoys hiking the canyons of the Colorado Plateau. Although Lutgens and Tarbuck think alike on many issues, they don't agree on everything. Lutgens is devoted to jazz and classical music, whereas Tarbuck prefers pop artists or a good country station.

Preface
Introduction to the Atmosphere
Meteorology, Weather, and Climate
Atmospheric Hazard: Assault by the Elements
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
Hypothesis
Theory
Scientific Methods
Observing the Atmosphere
The Atmosphere: A Part of the Earth System
Earth's Four Spheres
Earth System Science
Earth as a System
Composition of the Atmosphere
Major Components
Carbon Dioxide
Variable Components
Ozone Depletion-A Global Issue
The Ozone Hole
Effects of Ozone Depletion
Montreal Protocol
Extent of the Atmosphere
Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Vertical Variations in Composition
Ionosphere
The Auroras
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Monitoring Earth From Space
Earth's Atmosphere Evolves
Important Reactions Involving Ozone in the Stratosphere
Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere
Earth-Sun Relationships
Earth's Motions
The Seasons
Earth's Orientation
Solstices and Equinoxes
Energy Heat and Temperature
Forms of Energy
Temperature
Heat
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation?
Reflection and Scattering
Absorption by Earth's Surface and Atmosphere
Radiation Emitted by Earth
Heating the Atmosphere
The Greenhouse Effect
Role of Clouds in Heating Earth
Heat Budget
Latitudinal Heat Balance
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
When Are the Seasons?
The Analemma
Ultraviolet Index
Radiation Laws
Infrared Imaging
Solar Power
Temperature
For the Record: Air-Temperature Data
Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature
Land and Water
Ocean Currents
Altitude
Geographic Position
Cloud Cover and Albedo
World Distribution of Temperatures
Cycles of Air Temperature
Daily Temperature Variations
Magnitude of Daily Temperature Changes
Annual Temperature Variations
Temperature Measurement
Mechanical Thermometers
Electrical Thermometers
Instrument Shelters
Temperature Scales
Applications of Temperature Data
Heating Degree-Days
Cooling Degree-Days
Growing Degree-Days
Temperature and Comfort
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
North America's Hottest and Coldest Places
Atmospheric Hazard: Heat Waves-Deadly Events
Latitude and Temperature Range
How Cities Influence Temperature: The Urban Heat Island
Windchill: The Cooling Power of Moving Air
Moisture and Atmospheric Stability
Movement of Water Through the Atmosphere
Water's Changes of State
Ice, Liquid Water, and Water Vapor
Latent Heat
Humidity: Water Vapor in the Air
Vapor Pressure and Saturation
Relative Humidity
How Relative Humidity Changes
Natural Changes in Relative Humidity
Dew-Point Temperature
Humidity Measurement
Adiabatic Temperature Changes
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation
Processes That Lift Air
Orographic Lifting
Frontal Wedging
Convergence
Localized Convective Lifting
The Critical Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Types of Stability
Stability and Daily Weather
How Stability Changes
Temperature Changes and Stability
Vertical Air Movement and Stability
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Water: A Unique Substance
Dry Air at 100 Percent Relative Humidity?
Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers
Atmospheric Hazard: Humidity and Heat Stress
Precipitation Records and Mountainous Terrain
Orographic Effects: Windward Precipitation and Leeward Rain Shadows
Forms of Condensation and Precipitation
Cloud Formation
Condensation Aloft
Growth of Cloud Droplets
Cloud Classification
High Clouds
Middle Clouds
Low Clouds
Clouds of Vertical Development
Cloud Varieties
Types of Fog
Fogs Formed by Cooling
Fogs Formed by Evaporation
Dew and Frost
How Precipitation Forms
Precipitation from Cold Clouds: The Bergeron Process
Precipitation from Warm Clouds: The Collision-Coalescence Process
Forms of Precipitation
Rain
Snow
Sleet and Glaze
Hail
Rime
Precipitation Measurement
Standard Instruments
Measuring Snowfall
Measurement Errors
Precipitation Measurement by Weather Radar
Intentional Weather Modification
Cloud Seeding
Fog and Cloud Dispersal
Hail Suppression
Frost Prevention
Understanding the Role of Clouds in the Climate System
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Aircraft Contrails and Cloudiness
Forces Acting on Cloud Droplets and Raindrops
Science and Serendipity
Atmospheric Hazard: Worst Winter Weather
The Hail Cannons of Europe
Air Pressure and Winds
Understanding Air Pressure
Measuring Air Pressure
Pressure Changes with Altitude
Horizontal Variations in Air Pressure
Influence of Temperature and Water Vapor on Air Pressure
Airflow and Pressure
Factors Affecting Wind
Pressure-Gradient Force
Coriolis Force
Friction
Winds Aloft and Geostrophic Flow
Curved Flow and the Gradient Wind
Surface Winds
How Winds Generate Vertical Air Motion
Vertical Airflow Associated with Cyclones and Anticyclones
Factors That Promote Vertical Airflow
Wind Measurement
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Air Pressure and Aviation
Pressure-Gradient Force
Coriolis Force As a Function of Wind Speed and Latitude
Do Baseballs Really Fly Farther at Denver's Coors Field?
Wind Energy: An Alternative with Potential
Circulation of the Atmosphere
Scales of Atmospheric Motion
Large- and Small-Scale Circulation
Structure of Wind Patterns
Local Winds
Land and Sea Breezes
Mountain and Valley Breezes
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
Katabatic (Fall) Winds
Country Breezes
Global Circulation
Single-Cell Circulation Model
Three-Cell Circulation Model
Observed Distribution of Pressure and Winds
Idealized Zonal Pressure Belts
Semipermanent Pressure Systems: The Real World
Monsoons
The Asian Monsoon
The North American Monsoon
The Westerlies
Why Westerlies?
Jet Streams
Origin of the Polar Jet Stream
Subtropical Jet Stream
Waves in the Westerlies
Westerlies and Earth's Heat Budget
Global Winds and Ocean Currents
The Importance of Ocean Currents
Ocean Currents and Upwelling
El Nino and La Nina
Global Distribution of Precipitation
Zonal Distribution of Precipitation
Distribution of Precipitation over the Continents
Precipitation Regimes on a Hypothetical Continent
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Atmospheric Science Online
Dust Devils
Atmospheric Hazard: Santa Ana Winds and Wildfires
Monitoring Winds from Space
Tracking El Nino from Space
Air Masses
What Is an Air Mass?
Source Regions
Classifying Air Masses
Air-Mass Modification
Properties of North American Air Masses
Continental Polar (cP) and Continental Arctic (cA) Air Masses
Lake-Effect Snow: Cold Air over Warm Water
Maritime Polar (mP) Air Masses
Maritime Tropical (mT) Air Masses
Continental Tropical (cT) Air Masses
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
The Siberian Express
Atmospheric Hazard: An Extraordinary Lake-Effect Snowstorm
Weather Patterns
Polar-Front Theory (Norwegian Cyclone Model)
Fronts
Warm Fronts
Cold Fronts
Stationary Fronts
Occluded Fronts
Drylines
Life Cycle of a Mid-latitude Cyclone
Formation: The Clash of Two Air Masses
Development of Cyclonic Flow
Occlusion: The Beginning of the End
Idealized Weather of a Mid-latitude Cyclone
Cyclone Formation
Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation
Divergence and Convergence Aloft
Traveling Cyclones
Patterns of Movement
Flow Aloft and Cyclonic Migration
Anticyclonic Weather and Blocking Highs
Case Study of a Mid-latitude Cyclone
Violent Spring Weather
Weather in Peoria
A Modern View: The Conveyor Belt Model
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Atmospheric Science Online
Winds As a Forecasting Tool
Atmospheric Hazard: The Great Flood of 1993
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
What's in a Name?
Thunderstorms
Air-Mass Thunderstorms
Stages of Development
Occurrence
Severe Thunderstorms
Supercell Thunderstorms
Squall Lines and Mesoscale Convective Complexes
Microbursts
Lightning and Thunder
What Causes Lightning?
The Lightning Stroke
Thunder
Tornadoes
The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes
Tornado Development
Tornado Climatology
Profile of a Tornado
Tornado Destruction
Tornado Forecasting
Tornado Watches and Warnings
Doppler Radar
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Atmospheric Hazard: Flash Floods-The Number One Thunderstorm Killer
Atmospheric Hazard: Lightning Safety
Atmospheric Hazard: Surviving a Violent Tornado
Atmospheric Hazard: The April 1974 Super Tornado Outbreak
The Doppler Effect
Hurricanes
Profile of a Hurricane
Hurricane Formation and Decay
Hurricane Formation
Hurricane Decay
Hurricane Destruction
Storm Surge
Wind Damage
Inland Flooding
Estimating the Intensity of a Hurricane
Detecting and Tracking Hurricanes
The Role of Satellites
Aircraft Reconnaissance
Radar and Data Buoys
Hurricane Watches and Warnings
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
The Conservation of Angular Momentum
Naming Tropical Storms and Hurricanes
Atmospheric Hazard: Examining Hurricane Katrina from Space
Atmospheric Hazard: A 3-D Look Inside a Hurricane
Weather Analysis and Forecasting
The Weather Business: A Brief Overview
Weather Analysis
Gathering Data
Weather Maps: Pictures of the Atmosphere
Weather Forecasting
Numerical Weather Prediction: Forecasting by Computer
Other Forecasting Methods
Upper Airflow and Weather Forecasting
Upper-Level Maps
The Connection Between Upper-Level Flow and Surface Weather
Long-Range Forecasts
Forecast Accuracy
Satellites in Weather Forecasting
What Weather Satellites Provide
Satellite Measurements
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Atmospheric Hazard: Debris Flow in the San Francisco Bay Region
Constructing a Synoptic Weather Chart
Numerical Weather Prediction
Precipitation Probability Forecasts
What Is "Normal"?
Air Pollution
A Brief Historical Perspective
Air Pollution: Not a New Problem
Some Historic Episodes
Sources and Types of Air Pollution
Primary Pollutants
Secondary Pollutants
Trends in Air Quality
Meteorological Factors Affecting Air Pollution
Wind As a Factor
The Role of Atmospheric Stability
Acid Precipitation
Extent and Potency of Acid Precipitation
Effects of Acid Precipitation
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Atmospheric Hazard: The Great Smog of 1952
Air Pollution Changes the Climate of Cities
Radon-An Example of Indoor Air Pollution
The Changing Climate
The Climate System
How Is Climate Change Detected?
Seafloor Sediment-A Storehouse of Climate Data
Oxygen Isotope Analysis
Climate Change Recorded in Glacial Ice
Tree Rings-Archives of Environmental History
Other Types of Proxy Data
Natural Causes of Climate Change
Plate Tectonics and Climate Change
Volcanic Activity and Climate Change
Orbital Variations
Solar Variability and Climate
Human Impact on Global Climate
Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases, and Climate Change
CO[subscript 2] Levels Are Rising
The Atmosphere's Response
The Role of Trace Gases
Climate-Feedback Mechanisms
How Aerosols Influence Climate
Some Possible Consequences of Global Warming
Water Resources and Agriculture
Sea-Level Rise
The Changing Arctic
The Potential for "Surprises"
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Atmospheric Science Online
Cryosphere-The World of Ice
A Possible Link Between Volcanism and Climate Change in the Geologic Past
Computer Models of Climate: Important Yet Imperfect Tools
Possible Consequences of Climate Change on the United States
Polar Warming and the Collapse of the Antarctic Ice Shelves
World Climates
Climate Classification
Climate Controls: A Summary
Latitude
Land and Water
Geographic Position and Prevailing Winds
Mountains and Highlands
Ocean Currents
Pressure and Wind Systems
World Climates-An Overview
The Wet Tropics (Af, Am)
Temperature Characteristics
Precipitation Characteristics
Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw)
Temperature Characteristics
Precipitation Characteristics
The Monsoon
The Cw Variant
The Dry Climates (B)
What Is Meant by "Dry"?
Subtropical Desert (BWh) and Steppe (BSh)
West Coast Subtropical Deserts
Middle-Latitude Desert (BWk) and Steppe (BSk)
Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Mild Winters (C)
Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa)
The Marine West Coast Climate (Cfb)
The Dry-Summer Subtropical (Mediterranean) Climate (Csa, Csb)
Humid Continental Climates with Severe Winters (D)
Humid Continental Climate (Dfa)
The Subarctic Climate (Dfc, Dfd)
The Polar Climates (E)
The Tundra Climate (ET)
The Ice-Cap Climate (EF)
Highland Climates
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Problems
Atmospheric Science Online
Climate Diagrams
Clearing the Tropical Rain Forest-The Impact on Its Soils
The Disappearing Aral Sea
Atmospheric Hazard: Understanding Drought
Optical Phenomena of the Atmostphere
Nature of Light
Reflection
Refraction
Mirages
Rainbows
Halos, Sun Dogs, and Solar Pillars
The Glory
The Corona
Chapter Summary
Vocabulary Review
Review Questions
Atmospheric Science Online
Are Highway Mirages Real?
Iridescent Clouds
Metric Units
Explanation and Decoding of the Daily Weather Map
Relative Humitidy and Dew-Point Tables
Laws Relating To Gases
Newton's Laws of Motion
Climate Data
Glossary
Index

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