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Educational Psychology Developing Learners

ISBN-10: 0131190873
ISBN-13: 9780131190870
Edition: 5th 2006 (Revised)
List price: $115.33
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Description: Educational Psychology: Developing Learnersis known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications.nbsp; Its unique approach helps teachers understand concepts by encouraging  More...

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Book details

List price: $115.33
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 744
Size: 9.00" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 4.048
Language: English

Educational Psychology: Developing Learnersis known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications.nbsp; Its unique approach helps teachers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts.nbsp; The book gives an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology, and moves seamlessly between theory and applications, including innumerable concrete examples-video cases, written cases, artifacts, and more-to help the reader connect educational psychology to children and classrooms.nbsp;

Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making
Case Study: Hidden Treasure
Teaching as Decision Making
Using Research in Classroom Decision Making
Drawing Conclusions from Research
Applying Psychological Theories in Classroom Decision Making
Importance of Regular Assessments in Classroom Decision Making
Accommodating Diversity in the Classroom
Developing as a Teacher
Studying Educational Psychology Effectively
The Big Picture
Case Study: More Harm Than Good?
Development and Diversity
Cognitive and Linguistic Development
Case Study: Economic Activities
Basic Principles of Human Development
Role of the Brain in Cognitive Development
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget's Basic Assumptions
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions
Current Perspectives on Vygotsky's Theory
An Information Processing View of Cognitive Development
Attention
Learning Strategies
Knowledge
Metacognition
Critiquing Information Processing Theory
Linguistic Development
Theoretical Perspectives on Language Development
Trends in Language Development
Learning a Second Language
Considering Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: In the Eye of the Beholder
Development of Self, Social Skills, and Morality
Case Study: The Bad Apple
Environmental Influences on Personal, Social, and Moral Development
Effects of Parenting
Effects of Culture
Peer Influences
Self-Socialization
Development of a Sense of Self
Factors Influencing the Development of Self-Views
Developmental Changes in Sense of Self
Social Development
Peer Relationships
Social Cognition
Fostering Social Skills
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups
Moral and Prosocial Development
Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior
Development of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg's Theory
Possible Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning: Gilligan's Theory
Determinants of Moral and Prosocial Behavior
Promoting Moral and Prosocial Development in the Classroom
Considering Diversity in Sense of Self, Social Development, and Morality
Ethnic Differences
Gender Differences
Socioeconomic Differences
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Characteristics of Different Age-Groups
General Themes in Personal, Social, and Moral Development
Case Study: The Scarlet Letter
Group Differences
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn't in School
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective
Cultural and Ethnic Differences
Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School
Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
Creating a More Multicultural Classroom Environment
Gender Differences
Origins of Gender Differences
Socioeconomic Differences
Risk Factors Associated with Poverty
Working with Homeless Students
Fostering Resilience
Building on Students' Strengths
Students at Risk
Characteristics of Students at Risk
Why Students Drop Out
Supporting Students at Risk
Remembering Within-Group Diversity
Group Differences and Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: The Active and the Passive
Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs
Case Study: Tim
Keeping Individual Differences in Perspective
Intelligence
Measuring Intelligence
How Theorists Conceptualize Intelligence
Nature, Nurture, and Group Differences in Intelligence
Being Optimistic About Students' Potential
Temperament
Temperament in the Classroom
Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms
Public Law 94-142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Is Inclusion in the Best Interest of Students?
Classifying Students with Special Needs
Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties
Learning Disabilities
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Speech and Communication Disorders
General Recommendations for Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties
Students with Social or Behavioral Problems
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Autism
General Recommendations for Students with Social or Behavioral Problems
Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning
Mental Retardation
Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges
Physical and Health Impairments
Visual Impairments
Hearing Loss
Severe and Multiple Disabilities
General Recommendations for Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges
Students with Advanced Cognitive Development
Giftedness
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: Quiet Amy
Learning and Motivation
Learning and Cognitive Processes
Case Study: Darren's Day at School
Looking at Learning from Different Perspectives
Learning as a Change in Behavior
Learning as a Change in Mental Representations or Associations
Learning and the Brain
Keeping an Open Mind About Theories of Learning
Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology
Basic Terminology in Cognitive Psychology
A Model of Human Memory
The Nature of the Sensory Register
Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention
The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory
Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge
The Nature of Long-Term Memory
Critiquing the Three-Component Model
Long-Term Memory Storage
The Various Forms of Knowledge
How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned
How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned
Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage
Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge
Long-Term Memory Retrieval
The Nature of Long-Term Memory Retrieval
Factors Affecting Retrieval
Why Learners Sometimes Forget
Giving Students Time to Process: Effects of Increasing Wait Time
Accommodating Diversity in Cognitive Processes
Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: How Time Flies
Knowledge Construction
Case Study: Pulling It All Together
Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory
Construction in Storage
Construction in Retrieval
Knowledge Construction as a Social Process
Benefits of Joint Meaning-Making with Peers
Organizing Knowledge
Concepts
Schemas and Scripts
Theories
When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry: Origins and Effects of Misconceptions
Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction
Providing Opportunities for Experimentation
Presenting the Ideas of Others
Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding
Promoting Dialogue
Using Authentic Activities
Creating a Community of Learners
The Challenge of Conceptual Change
Considering Diversity in Constructive Processes
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: Earth-Shaking Summaries
Higher-Level Thinking Processes
Case Study: A Question of Speed
The Nature of Higher-Level Thinking
Metacognition and Study Strategies
Effective Study Strategies
Factors Affecting Strategy Use
Transfer
Basic Concepts in Transfer
Factors Affecting Transfer
Importance of Retrieval in Transfer
Problem Solving
Basic Concepts in Problem Solving
Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving
Using Computer Technology to Promote Problem Solving
Creativity
Fostering Creativity
Critical Thinking
Fostering Critical Thinking
Considering Diversity in Higher-Level Thinking Processes
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: Checks and Balances
Behaviorist Views of Learning
Case Study: The Attention Getter
Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism
Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses
Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement in the Classroom
Using Reinforcement Effectively
Shaping New Behaviors
Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses
Reducing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors
Extinction
Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors
Punishment
Maintaining Desirable Behaviors Over the Long Run
Promoting Intrinsic Reinforcement
Using Intermittent Reinforcement
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors
Applied Behavior Analysis
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support
Considering Diversity in Student Behaviors
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches
The Big Picture
Case Study: Hostile Helen
Social Cognitive Views of Learning
Case Study: Parlez-Vous Francais?
Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory
The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment
Expectations
Vicarious Experiences
Cognitive Processing
Decisions About How to Behave
Nonoccurrence of Expected Consequences
Modeling
Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling
How Modeling Affects Behavior
Characteristics of Effective Models
Helping Students Learn from Models
Self-Efficacy
How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy
Fostering High Self-Efficacy
Teacher Self-Efficacy
Self-Regulation
Self-Regulated Behavior
Self-Regulated Learning
Self-Regulated Problem Solving
Reciprocal Causation
Considering Diversity from a Social Cognitive Perspective
Using Diverse Models to Promote Success and Self-Efficacy
Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk
Supporting Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Unifying Ideas in Social Cognitive Theory
Comparing the Three Perspectives of Learning
Case Study: Teacher's Lament
Motivation and Affect
Case Study: Quick Draw
The Nature of Motivation
How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation
Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation
The Trait Perspective
The Behaviorist Perspective
The Social Cognitive Perspective
The Cognitive Perspective
What Basic Needs Do People Have?
Self-Worth
Relatedness
Affect and Its Effects
How Affect Is Related to Motivation
How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition
Anxiety
Addressing Diversity in Motivation and Affect
Cultural and Ethnic Differences
Gender Differences
Socioeconomic Differences
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Guiding Principles
Case Study: When "Perfect" Isn't Good Enough
Cognitive Factors in Motivation
Case Study: Passing Algebra
The Interplay of Cognition and Motivation
Self-Perceptions and Intrinsic Motivation
Self-Efficacy
Self-Determination
Expectancies and Values
Internalizing the Values of Others
Fostering Expectancies and Values in the Classroom
Interest
Situational Versus Personal Interest
Promoting Interest in Classroom Subject Matter
Goals
Achievement Goals
Work-Avoidance Goals
Social Goals
Career Goals
Coordinating Multiple Goals
Dispositions
Attributions: Perceived Causes of Success and Failure
How Attributions Influence Affect, Cognition, and Behavior
Developmental Trends in Attributions
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions
Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness
Teacher Expectations and Attributions
How Expectations and Attributions Affect Classroom Performance
Forming Productive Expectations and Attributions for Student Performance
Considering Diversity in the Cognitive Aspects of Motivation
Ethnic Differences
Gender Differences
Socioeconomic Differences
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
General Principles of Motivation
Revisiting the Four Theoretical Perspectives
Case Study: Writer's Block
Classroom Strategies
Instructional Strategies
Case Study: Oregon Trail
Overview of Instructional Strategies
Planning for Instruction
Identifying the Goals of Instruction
Conducting a Task Analysis
Developing a Lesson Plan
Expository Approaches
Lectures and Textbooks
Mastery Learning
Direct Instruction
Computer-Based Instruction
Online Research
Hands-On and Practice Activities
Discovery Learning
In-Class Activities
Computer Simulations and Applications
Homework
Authentic Activities
Interactive and Collaborative Approaches
Teacher Questions
Class Discussions
Reciprocal Teaching
Technology-Based Discussions
Cooperative Learning
Peer Tutoring
Taking Student Diversity into Account
Considering Group Differences
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Case Study: Uncooperative Students
Creating a Productive Learning Environment
Case Study: A Contagious Situation
Creating an Environment Conducive to Learning
Arranging the Classroom
Creating an Effective Classroom Climate
Setting Limits
Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task
Monitoring What Students Are Doing
Modifying Instructional Strategies
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account
Dealing with Misbehaviors
Ignoring Behavior
Cueing a Student
Discussing a Problem Privately with a Student
Teaching Self-Regulation Strategies
Using Behaviorist Approaches
Conferring with Parents
Addressing Aggression and Violence at School
Creating a Nonviolent School Environment
Intervening Early for Students at Risk
Providing Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble
Taking Student Diversity into Account
Creating a Supportive Climate
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
Coordinating Efforts with Others
Working with Other Teachers
Working with the Community at Large
Working with Parents
The Big Picture
Case Study: Old Friends
Classroom Assessment Strategies
Case Study: The Math Test
Assessments as Tools
The Various Forms of Educational Assessment
Using Assessment for Different Purposes
Promoting Learning
Guiding Instructional Decision Making
Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems
Promoting Self-Regulation
Determining What Students Have Learned
Important Qualities of Good Assessment
Reliability
Standardization
Validity
Praticality
Informal Assessment
RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment
Paper-Pencil Assessment
Constructing the Assessment Instrument
Administering the Assessment
Scoring Students' Responses
RSVP Characteristics of Paper-Pencil Assessment
Performance Assessment
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks
Planning and Administering the Assessment
Scoring Students' Responses
RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessment
Including Students in the Assessment Process
Encouraging Risk Taking
Evaluating an Assessment Tool Through Item Analysis
Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments
Test Anxiety
Testwiseness
Accommodating Group Differences
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
The Big Picture
Learning, Motivation, and Assessment
General Guidelines for Classroom Assessment
Case Study: Pick and Choose
Summarizing Student Achievement
Case Study: B in History
Revisiting Self-Regulation and the RSVP Characteristics
Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment
Raw Scores
Criterion-Referenced Scores
Norm-Referenced Scores
Using Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom
Determining Final Class Grades
Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit
Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades
Including Students in the Grading Process
Using Portfolios
Standardized Tests
Types of Standardized Tests
Technology and Assessment
Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests
Interpreting Standardized Test Scores
High-Stakes Testing and Accountability
Problems with High-Stakes Testing
Potential Solutions to the Problems
Taking Student Diversity into Account
Cultural Bias
Language Differences
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
Confidentiality and Communication About Assessment Results
Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents
The Big Picture
Case Study: Can Johnny Read?
Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients
Analyses of the Ending Case Studies
Matching Book and Ancillary Content to the Praxis Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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