Limnology

ISBN-10: 0130337757
ISBN-13: 9780130337757
Edition: 2002
Authors: Jacob Kalff
List price: $160.00
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Description: For senior-level undergraduate or graduate courses in limnology or aquatic management in the Life Sciences and Biology departments. Written from an ecosystem perspective, this user-friendly and thorough text discusses events that happen below the  More...

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Book details

List price: $160.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/6/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 592
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.168
Language: English

For senior-level undergraduate or graduate courses in limnology or aquatic management in the Life Sciences and Biology departments. Written from an ecosystem perspective, this user-friendly and thorough text discusses events that happen below the waterline of lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The text links them back to the attributers of the drainage basins, the overlying atmosphere and climate, which have a major impact on inland waters and their biota. It also contains a large number of easy-to-comprehend figures and tables that reinforce the written material and provide evidence for statements made.

Inland Waters and Their Catchments: An Introduction and Setting
Introduction
The Setting
Organization of the Text
Acknowledgments
The Development of Limnology
Limnology and Its Roots
Limnology Between World War I and World War II
The Development of Ideas: Europe
The Development of Ideas: North America
Limnology after World War II
Scales and Patterns: A Conceptual Exploration
Water: A Unique and Important Substance
Introduction
Characteristics of Water
Water Resources, Water Pollution, and Lakes
Introduction
Water Resources
Lakes, Rivers, Wetlands, and Their Global Distribution
A Look at "Typical" Lakes and Streams
Hydrology and Climate
Introduction
Water Movement in Catchments
Humans and the Hydrologic Cycle
Global Patterns in Precipitation and Runoff
Runoff and the Presence of Waterbodies
Water Inputs and Outputs
The Aral Sea
The Caspian Sea
Origin and Age of Lakes
Introduction
Glacial Lakes
Tectonic Lakes
Coastal Lakes
Riverine Lakes
Volcanic Lakes
Solution or Karst Lakes
Manmade Lakes or Reservoirs
Lake and Catchment Morphometry
Introduction
The Bathymetric Map
Lake Surface Area
Lake Depth
Lake Shape
Underwater and Catchment Slopes
Rivers and the Export of Materials from Drainage Basins and the Atmosphere
Introduction
Flowing Water Systems
Rivers and Their Ecotones
Rivers, Their Banks, and Human Activity
Drainage-Basin Export of Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Atmospheric Deposition of Nutrients
Nutrient Export, Catchment Size, Lake Morphometry, and the Biota: A Conceptualization
Organic Carbon Export from Drainage Basins
Aquatic Systems and their Catchments
Catchment Size
Catchment Form
Catchment Soils and Vegetation
Water Residence Time
Nutrient Concentrations, Trophic State, and WRT
Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Materials by Lakes and Reservoirs
Sediment Loading to Aquatic Systems
Light
Introduction
Detectors
Light Above and Below the Water Surface
Absorption, Transmission, and Scattering of Light in Water
Ultraviolet Radiation and Its Effects
Light Attenuation
Light Attenuation and Photosynthesis
Light Attenuation and Lake Stratification
The Secchi Disc and Its Utility
Limitations of the Secchi Disc
Light and Primary Production
Underwater Vision
Temperature Cycles, Lake Stratification, and Heat Budgets
Introduction
Types of Stratification and Mixing
Morphometry and Stratification
Seasonal Temperature Cycles and Stratification
Stability of Stratification
Stability of Temperate vs Tropical Lakes
Thermocline Depth
Thermocline Shape
Meromictic Lakes
Development of Meromixis
Heat Budgets
Climatic Change and Aquatic Systems
Water Movements
Introduction
Laminar vs Turbulent Flow
Surface Gravity Waves
Turbulent Flow and Measures of Stability
Coefficient of Vertical Eddy
Coefficient of Horizontal Eddy Diffusion
Horizontal Currents
Long-term Surface Current Patterns
Langmuir Currents
Standing Surface Waves
Internal or Thermocline Seiches
Internal Seiches, Hypolimnetic Currents, and Sediment Resuspension
Turbulent Mixing and the Biota
Salinity and Major Ion Composition of Lakes and Rivers
Introduction
Salinity and Its Origins
Total Salinity and Its Determination
Major Ion Composition
Human Activity, Climate, and Ion Composition
Saline Lakes and Their Distribution
Ionic Composition of Inland Saline Lakes and Wetlands
The Salinity Spectrum and the Biota
Inorganic Carbon and pH
Introduction
Carbon Dioxide in Water
pH and Its Range in Aquatic Systems
Alkalinity of Inland Waters
pH, Extreme Environmental Conditions, and Species Richness
Carbonates: Precipitation and Solubilization
Dissolved Oxygen
Introduction
Solubility of Oxygen in Water
Sources and Sinks of Oxygen
Photosynthesis, Respiration, and DOC
Dissolved Oxygen Consumption and Lake Productivity
Oxygen Depletion in Ice-covered Waters
Dissolved Oxygen and the Biota
Oxidation-Reduction Potential
Introduction
Redox Reactions and Nutrient Cycling
Phosphorus Concentrations and Cycling
Introduction
The Classical Model of Phosphorus Cycling
The Modern Model and Aerobic Phosphorus Release
The Mass-Balance Equation and Phosphorus Cycling
Sediment Phosphorus Release and Phytoplankton Production
Phosphorus Control, Internal Loading, and Lake Management
The Empirical Modeling of Phosphorus
The Dynamic Modeling of Phosphorus
Nitrogen Cycling
Introduction: The Atmosphere, the Land, and the Water
Nitrogen Transformation Processes
Nitrification
Denitrification
Nitrogen Fixation: Rates and Process
Nitrogen Fixation Rates: Plankton vs Littoral Zone
Forms and Quantities of Nitrogen in Inland Waters
Iron, Manganese, and Sulfur
Introduction
Iron Cycling
Iron and Sulfur
Iron and Organic Matter
The Manganese Cycle
Iron, Manganese, and Trace Metals
Particle Sedimentation and Sediments
Introduction
Origin and Distribution of Sediments
Sedimentation and Sediment Traps
Sinking Velocities and Sedimentation Rates
The Sediment Record
Dating Sediments
Profundal Sediment Characteristics
The Phytoplankton
Introduction
Species Composition and Phylogenetic Generalities
Phytoplankton Size and Activity: Small Cells vs Large Cells
Seasonal Biomass Cycles: A Conceptual Model
The Composition of Phytoplankton Cells
Algal Sedimentation and Buoyancy Control
Parasitism and Disease
Photosynthesis, Light, and Temperature
Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Growth
Primary Production in Nature
Production: Biomass (P:B) Ratios and Specific Growth Rates in Nature
Limiting Nutrients and Eutrophication
Nitrogen vs Phosphorus
Empirical Nutrient-Phytoplankton Relationships
The Maximum Phytoplankton Biomass
The Bacteria
Introduction
From Past to Present
Bacterial Size, Form, and Metabolism
Abundance, Biomass, and Distribution
Heterotrophic Bacterial Abundance and Environmental Factors
Resource Limitation vs Grazing Control of Bacterial Abundance
Heterotrophic Bacteria: Production, Losses, and System Contribution
Viruses
The Microbial Food Web
Photosynthetic Bacteria
Heterotrophic Sediment Bacteria
Zooplankton
Introduction
Zooplankton Sampling
Protozoa, Rotifers, and Crustaceans
Species Richness and Its Prediction
Seasonal Cycles
Long-term Variation in Zooplankton Abundance
Top-down Control of Zooplankton
Biomanipulation and Lake Management
Chaoborus: The Phantom Midge
Zooplankton Feeding
Nutrient Cycling and Zooplankton
Resource Availability and Zooplankton Biomass
Zooplankton Production
Diel Migration and Cyclomorphosis
Benthic Plants
Introduction
Wetlands and Their Utilization
Macrophyte Distribution and Species Richness
Macrophyte Biomass and Its Determinants
Submerged Macrophyte Distribution: Light and Lake Morphometry
Submerged Macrophyte Distributions and Plant Nutrients
Submerged Macrophyte Distribution and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC): A Physiological Exploration
Plant Size, Community Structure, and Function
Attached Algae
Eutrophication and Benthic Plants
Lake Management and Macrophytes
Zoobenthos
Introduction
Taxonomic Distribution, Species Richness, and Abundance
Life-History Aspects
Lake Morphometry, Substrate Characteristics, and the Zoobenthos
Resource and Predation Control
The Zebra Mussel: A Keystone Species
The Zoobenthos and Energy Flow in Lakes
Fish and Water Birds
Introduction
Fish Species and Species Richness
Life-History Attributes and Population Dynamics of Age-0 Fish
Fish Growth: Determinants and Measurement
Fisheries and Fisheries Management
The Biology of a Temperate Zone Fish and a Tropical Fish: Perch and Tilapia
Predicting Fish Biomass, Production, and Yield
Aquaculture and Water Quality
Water Birds
Acidification of Waterways
Introduction
Sources and Distributions
Acid-Sensitive Waters
Characteristics of Acid-Sensitive Waters and Catchments
Catchments and Lake Acidification: Wet and Dry Deposition
Neutralization and Buffering Processes in Catchments
Buffering Capacity of Lakes, Rivers, and Wetlands
Aluminum and Other Toxic Metals
Effects of Acidification on the Aquatic Biota
Modeling the Acidification Process
Lake Management: Recovering from Acidification
The Future
Contaminants
Introduction
Toxic Substances
Sources of Contaminants
The Fate of Contaminants
The Sediment Record
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Contaminants and Their Distribution in Nature
Toxicity and Its Prediction
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
Mercury and the Mercury Cycle
Toxic Chemicals, Environmental Health, and Lake Management
Reservoirs
Introduction
Natural Lakes and Reservoirs
The River-Lake-Reservoir Continuum
Water Residence Time and Plankton Growth Rates
Reservoir Zonation: A Conceptual View
Drawdowns
Reservoir Aging and the Trophic Upsurge
Large Reservoirs and Their Impacts
International Organization for Standardization of Country Codes
Conversion Factors for Selected Elements and Reported Species
Bibliography
Index

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