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Chemical Process Safety Fundamentals with Applications

ISBN-10: 0130181765
ISBN-13: 9780130181763
Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)
List price: $144.00
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Description: For upper level undergraduate or graduate level Chemical or Mechanical Engineering courses in chemical process safety, as well as for chemical and mechanical engineers in the beginning of their careers who are interested in improving chemical  More...

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Book details

List price: $144.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 10/16/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 656
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

For upper level undergraduate or graduate level Chemical or Mechanical Engineering courses in chemical process safety, as well as for chemical and mechanical engineers in the beginning of their careers who are interested in improving chemical process safety. It can also serve as a guide for anyone interested in learning about chemical process safety, including high school teachers, firemen, environmentalists, OSHA regulators, EPA regulators, and others. The only book designed as a text for teaching chemical process safety, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the essential technical fundamentals of chemical process safety. Its emphasis on fundamentals is intended to help both the student and the practicing scientist to understand the concepts and to apply them in an appropriate manner.

Preface
Nomenclature
Introduction
Safety Programs
Engineering Ethics
Accident and Loss Statistics
Acceptable Risk
Public Perceptions
The Nature of the Accident Process
Inherent Safety
Four Significant Disasters
Flixborough, England
Bhopal, India
Seveso, Italy
Pasadena, Texas
Suggested Reading
Problems
Toxicology
How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms
Gastrointestinal Tract
Skin
Respiratory System
How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms
Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms
Toxicological Studies
Dose versus Response
Models for Dose and Response Curves
Relative Toxicity
Threshold Limit Values
Suggested Reading
Problems
Industrial Hygiene
Government Regulations
Laws and Regulations
Creating a Law
Creating a Regulation
OSHA: Process Safety Management
EPA: Risk Management Plan
Industrial Hygiene: Identification
Material Safety Data Sheets
Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation
Evaluating Exposures to Volatile Toxicants by Monitoring
Evaluation of Worker Exposures to Dusts
Evaluating Worker Exposures to Noise
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic Vapors
Industrial Hygiene: Control
Respirators
Ventilation
Suggested Reading
Problems
Source Models
Introduction to Source Models
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
Flow of Liquids through Pipes
2-K Method
Flow of Vapor through Holes
Flow of Gases through Pipes
Adiabatic Flows
Isothermal Flows
Flashing Liquids
Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling
Realistic and Worst-Case Releases
Conservative Analysis
Suggested Reading
Problems
Toxic Release and Dispersion Models
Parameters Affecting Dispersion
Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models
Steady-State Continuous Point Release with No Wind
Puff with No Wind
Non-Steady-State Continuous Point Release with No Wind
Steady-State Continuous Point Source Release with Wind
Puff with No Wind and Eddy Diffusivity Is a Function of Direction
Steady-State Continuous Point Source Release with Wind and Eddy Diffusivity Is a Function of Direction
Puff with Wind
Puff with No Wind and with Source on Ground
Steady-State Plume with Source on Ground
Continuous Steady-State Source with Source at Height H[subscript r] above the Ground
Pasquill-Gifford Model
Puff with Instantaneous Point Source at Ground Level, Coordinates Fixed at Release Point, Constant Wind Only in x Direction with Constant Velocity u
Plume with Continuous Steady-State Source at Ground Level and Wind Moving in x Direction at Constant Velocity u
Plume with Continuous Steady-State Source at Height H[subscript r] above Ground Level and Wind Moving in x Direction at Constant Velocity u
Puff with Instantaneous Point Source at Height H[subscript r] above Ground Level and a Coordinate System on the Ground That Moves with the Puff
Puff with Instantaneous Point Source at Height H[subscript r] above Ground Level and a Coordinate System Fixed on the Ground at the Release Point
Worst-Case Conditions
Limitations to Pasquill-Gifford Dispersion Modeling
Dense Gas Dispersion
Toxic Effect Criteria
Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy
Release Mitigation
Suggested Reading
Problems
Fires and Explosions
The Fire Triangle
Distinction between Fires and Explosions
Definitions
Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors
Liquids
Gases and Vapors
Vapor Mixtures
Flammability Limit Dependence on Temperature
Flammability Limit Dependence on Pressure
Estimating Flammability Limits
Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting
Flammability Diagram
Ignition Energy
Autoignition
Auto-Oxidation
Adiabatic Compression
Ignition Sources
Sprays and Mists
Explosions
Detonation and Deflagration
Confined Explosions
Blast Damage Resulting from Overpressure
TNT Equivalency
TNO Multi-Energy Method
Energy of Chemical Explosions
Energy of Mechanical Explosions
Missile Damage
Blast Damage to People
Vapor Cloud Explosions
Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosions
Suggested Reading
Problems
Designs to Prevent Fires and Explosions
Inerting
Vacuum Purging
Pressure Purging
Combined Pressure-Vacuum Purging
Vacuum and Pressure Purging with Impure Nitrogen
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Various Pressure and Vacuum Inerting Procedures
Sweep-Through Purging
Siphon Purging
Using the Flammability Diagram To Avoid Flammable Atmospheres
Static Electricity
Fundamentals of Static Charge
Charge Accumulation
Electrostatic Discharges
Energy from Electrostatic Discharges
Energy of Electrostatic Ignition Sources
Streaming Current
Electrostatic Voltage Drops
Energy of Charged Capacitors
Capacitance of a Body
Balance of Charges
Controlling Static Electricity
General Design Methods To Prevent Electrostatic Ignitions
Relaxation
Bonding and Grounding
Dip Pipes
Increasing Conductivity with Additives
Handling Solids without Flammable Vapors
Handling Solids with Flammable Vapors
Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments
Explosion-Proof Housings
Area and Material Classification
Design of an XP Area
Ventilation
Open-Air Plants
Plants Inside Buildings
Sprinkler Systems
Miscellaneous Designs for Preventing Fires and Explosions
Suggested Reading
Problems
Introduction to Reliefs
Relief Concepts
Definitions
Location of Reliefs
Relief Types
Relief Scenarios
Data for Sizing Reliefs
Relief Systems
Relief Installation Practices
Relief Design Considerations
Horizontal Knockout Drum
Flares
Scrubbers
Condensers
Suggested Reading
Problems
Relief Sizing
Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service
Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service
Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service
Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service
Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief
Simplified Nomograph Method
Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions
Vents for Low-Pressure Structures
Vents for High-Pressure Structures
Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels
Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids
Suggested Reading
Problems
Hazards Identification
Process Hazards Checklists
Hazards Surveys
Hazards and Operability Studies
Safety Reviews
Other Methods
Suggested Reading
Problems
Risk Assessment
Review of Probability Theory
Interactions between Process Units
Revealed and Unrevealed Failures
Probability of Coincidence
Redundancy
Common Mode Failures
Event Trees
Fault Trees
Determining the Minimal Cut Sets
Quantitative Calculations Using the Fault Tree
Advantages and Disadvantages of Fault Trees
Relationship between Fault Trees and Event Trees
QRA and LOPA
Quantitative Risk Analysis
Layer of Protection Analysis
Consequence
Frequency
Suggested Reading
Problems
Accident Investigations
Learning from Accidents
Layered Investigations
Investigation Process
Investigation Summary
Aids for Diagnosis
Fires
Explosions
Sources of Ignition in Vessels
Pressure Effects
Medical Evidence
Miscellaneous Aids to Diagnosis
Aids for Recommendations
Control Plant Modifications
User-Friendly Designs
Block Valves
Double Block and Bleed
Preventive Maintenance
Analyzers
Suggested Reading
Problems
Case Histories
Static Electricity
Tank Car Loading Explosion
Explosion in a Centrifuge
Duct System Explosion
Conductor in a Solids Storage Bin
Pigment and Filter
Pipefitter's Helper
Lessons Learned
Chemical Reactivity
Bottle of Isopropyl Ether
Nitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Decomposition
Organic Oxidation
Lessons Learned
System Designs
Ethylene Oxide Explosion
Ethylene Explosion
Butadiene Explosion
Light Hydrocarbon Explosion
Pump Vibration
Pump Failure
Ethylene Explosion (1)
Ethylene Explosion (2)
Ethylene Oxide Explosion
Lessons Learned
Procedures
Leak Testing a Vessel
Man Working in Vessel
Vinyl Chloride Explosion
Dangerous Water Expansion
Phenol-Formaldehyde Runaway Reaction
Conditions and Secondary Reaction Cause Explosion
Fuel-Blending Tank Explosion
Lessons Learned
Conclusion
Suggested Reading
Problems
Unit Conversion Constants
Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons
Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams
Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service
Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4
Saturation Vapor Pressure Data

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