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Underground Infrastructures Planning, Design, and Construction

ISBN-10: 0123971683
ISBN-13: 9780123971685
Edition: 2012
List price: $99.95 Buy it from $75.99
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Description: Underground facilities, such as tunnels, sewer, water and gas networks form the backbone of the economic life of the modern city. In densely populated areas where the demands for transportation and services are rapidly increasing and the  More...

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Book details

List price: $99.95
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 5/7/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 352
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Underground facilities, such as tunnels, sewer, water and gas networks form the backbone of the economic life of the modern city. In densely populated areas where the demands for transportation and services are rapidly increasing and the construction of new roads and railways are prohibited, the construction of a tunnel might be the only alternative. Brief and readable, this reference is based on a combined 75 years of field experience and places emphasis is on simple practical rules for designing and planning, underground infrastructures. The books' begins with a clear and rigorous exposition of the classification of underground space, important considerations such as geological and engineering and underground planning. This is followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications for underground water storage, underground car parks, underground metros & road tunnels and underground storage of crude oil, lpg and natural gas. The book has 15 chapters covering various usage of underground space. There are about 135 figures and tables. The book contains about 20 case histories/examples.One of the first book to address all of the major areas in which this technology is used, this book deals with major topics such as: hydroelectric projects with modern planning of complex underground structures; underground storages of food items, crude oil and explosives and highly cautious underground nuclear waste repositories. Rail and road tunnels and TBM are described briefly. Risk management in underground infrastructures is of vital importance. Civil Engineers, Mining Engineers, and Geotechnical Engineers will find this book a valuable guide to designing and planning underground infrastructures both in terms of its applications.Risk management method for underground infrastructuresVital tips for the underground storage of food, water, crude oil, natural gas and munitionsProvides design tips for Underground Parking FacilitiesInstruction for the designing planning and construction for underground Metros and road tunnelsPlanning and design of underground nuclear waste repositories Clearly explains the benefits and drawbacks of underground facilitiesQuick guide to the various modern mechanical underground parking optionsExplanation of construction planning and Risk managementPlaces expert advice for planning and constructing projects at the finger tips

Preface
Introduction
Underground Space and Its Requirement
History of Underground Space Use
Underground Space for Sustainable Development
What Should Be Done?
Future of Underground Space Facilities
Scope of the Book
References
Classification of Underground Space
General
Major Classification Grouping
Function
Geometry
Origin
Site Features
Project Features
Benefits and Drawbacks of Underground Facilities
References
Important Considerations
Geological Considerations
Engineering Considerations
Psychological and Physiological Considerations
Image of the Underground
Actual Experiences in Underground Buildings
Actual Experience in Windowless and Other Analogous Environments
Potential Psychological Problems Associated with Underground Space
Mitigating Factors
Choosing to Go Underground-General Advantages
Potential Physical Benefits
Protection
Security
Aesthetics
Environmental Advantages
Materials
Initial Cost/Land Cost Savings
Construction Savings
Sale of Excavated Material or Minerals
Savings in Specialized Design Features
Operating Cost/Maintenance
Energy Use
Land Use Efficiency
Disaster Readiness/National Security
Drawbacks of Underground Space Use
Physical
Climate Isolation
Communication
Human Occupancy
Safety Considerations
Fire Explosion
Oxygen Shortage/Poisoning
Flood
Electric Power Failure
Ventilation
Legal and Administrative Considerations
Limits of Surface Property Ownership
Ownership and the Right to Develop Subsurface Space
Application of Surface Land Use Regulations
Environmental Controls
Restrictions due to Surface and Subsurface Structures
Economic Considerations
References
Underground Space Planning
Forms of Underground Space Available and Uses
Level-Wise Planning of Underground Space Use
Future Forms of Underground Space Use
Technology for Underground Development
Conceptual Designs
Cost Considerations
Planning of Underground Space
References
Underground Storage of Food Items
General
Section 1
Problems Associated with Underground Food Storage
Site Selection
Construction and Design
Depth
Unit Size
Lining
Loading and Unloading Equipment
Equipment to Equilibrate Grain Temperature during Loading and Unloading
Considerations while Loading the Storage
Considerations prior to Unloading of Underground Storage
Underground Storage Bins in Argentina
Potato Storage
Section 2
Refrigerated Rock Stores
Design of Underground Cold Storage
Shape and Size
Thermal Properties
Cost Comparison
Case Histories
Warehouse Caverns in Singapore
Cold Storage Plant in Bergen, Norway
References
Underground Storage of Water
General
Water Storage by Recharge Methods
Controlling Factors
Recharge Methods
Underground Rock Cavern Tank Storage
Function and Location of Water Tanks
Comparison between Aboveground and Underground Water Tanks
Planning and Design
Cost for Underground Cavern Storage
Construction and Maintenance Experience
Case Histories
The Kvernberget Rock Cavern Tank
The Steinan Rock Cavern Tank, Norway
The Groheia Rock Cavern Tank in Kristiansand, Norway
References
Underground Parking
Introduction
Types of Parking Facilities
Various Modern Mechanical Underground Parking Options
Trevipark System
Douskos Car Parks-Mechanical Underground Parking Station Systems
Evaluation Criteria of a Site for Underground Parking
Design of Underground Parking Facilities
Parking Guidance System
Parking Lot Security
Ventilation in Underground Car Parks
Economics of Underground Parking Facilities
Case Histories
Sydney Opera House Underground Car Park
Munich Automated Underground Parking System, Germany
References
Underground Metro and Road Tunnels
Introduction
Findings of International Tunnelling Association
Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)
Tunnel Boring Machines for Hard Rocks
Shielded Tunnel Boring Machines
Precast Lining
Building Condition Survey and Vibration Limit
Impact on Structures
Subsidence
Half-Tunnels for Roads
Road Tunnels
General
Traffic Safety
Construction Details
Precautions to Protect Road Tunnels from Deterioration
Cost of Construction
Subsea Tunnels
General
Maintenance
Case Histories
Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT)
L�tschberg Base Tunnel (LBT)
References
Underground Storage of Crude Oil, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and Natural Gas
Introduction
Investigations and Design
Underground Storage Technology
Underground Unlined Storage
Underground Lined Storage
Storage of Natural Gas
Tunnel-Shaped Storage Facility
Disadvantages
Separation Distance between Caverns
Multitank Storage (Polytank) Concept
Construction Principles
Rock Mechanics of Polytank Storage
Field of Applications
Advantages
General Advantages and Disadvantages of Underground Storages
Advantages
Disadvantages
Inground Tanks
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cost Aspects
Effect of Earthquake
Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
References
Civic Facilities Underground
General
Sewage and Waste Water Treatment Plant
Case Example of Cost Comparison
Sports Center
Underground Ice Rink
Swimming Center
Underground Pedestrian Path
Operation of the System
Shopping Mall
Underground Recreational Facilities
References
Underground Structures for Hydroelectric Projects
Introduction
Recent Developments in Planning of Hydroelectric Projects
Types of Underground Structures
Principles of Planning
Fundamental Requirements
Planning a Cavern
Design of a Cavern
Space and Geometries
Geotechniques
Orientation
Excavation Sequence and Techniques
In Situ Stresses
Earthquake Forces
Supports
Advantages and Disadvantages
Case Histories
Churchill Falls Hydroelectric Project
Chhibro Underground Powerhouse
Tala Hydroelectric Project, Bhutan
Summary
References
Underground Shelters for Wartime
General
State-of-the-Art Defense Shelters
Shelter Options
Design of Shelters
Basement Shelters
Expedient Shelter Designs
Case Histories
Civil Defense Shelter in Singapore
Beijing's Underground City
References
Underground Storage of Ammunitions and Explosives
General
Explosion Effects in Underground Ammunition Storage Sites
Advantages and Disadvantages of Underground Storage
Storage Limitations
Ammunition Containing Flammable Liquids or Gels
Ammunition Containing Toxic Agents
Suspect Ammunition and Explosives
Ammunition Containing Pyrotechnics
Ammunition Containing Depleted Uranium
Design Requirements of Underground Ammunition Storage Facility
Safety Requirements
Military Requirements
Financial Aspects
Humidity Control and Ventilation
Electric Installations and Equipment
Lightning Protection
Transport and Handling Equipment
Fire-Fighting Equipment
Facility Layout
Design Guidelines
Underground Chambers
Exits
Branch Passageways
Blast Closures
Expansion Chambers
Constrictions
Debris Traps within Underground Facility
Blast Traps
Portal Barricade
Interior Wall Roughness
Depth of Cover above Storage Chambers
Chamber Separation Requirement
Sympathetic Detonation by Rock Spall
Case History
Underground Ammunition Storage Facility, Singapore
References
Underground Nuclear Waste Repositories
Introduction
Types of Radioactive Nuclear Waste
Underground Research Laboratory
Stripa Underground Research Facility
Concept of Barriers
Design Aspects of Underground Repository
Vertical Emplacement in a Pit
Alternative System Layout for Very Long Hole (VLH)
Instrumentation
Retrievability of Canister
Public Acceptance of Radioactive Waste Repository
References
Contractual Risk Sharing
The Risk
Management of Risk
Risk Management Tools-Fault Tree Analysis
Recommendations of International Tunnelling Association
Recommendations of International Standard Organisation
Role of Engineering Leaders
Construction Planning and Risk
Time and Cost Estimates
References
Annexure
Index

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