Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere Theory, Experiments, and Applications

ISBN-10: 012257060X
ISBN-13: 9780122570605
Edition: 2000
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Description: This text provides a detailed and comprehensive resource. It bridges the gap between the fundamental chemistry of the earth's atmosphere and real-world examples of its application to the development of sound scientific risk assessments.

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Book details

List price: $170.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 11/15/1999
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 969
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.50" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 5.984
Language: English

This text provides a detailed and comprehensive resource. It bridges the gap between the fundamental chemistry of the earth's atmosphere and real-world examples of its application to the development of sound scientific risk assessments.

Preface
About the Authors
Acknowledgments
Overview of the Chemistry of Polluted and Remote Atmospheres
Regions and Characteristics of The Atmosphere
Air Pollution and the Chemistry of Our Troposphere
Historical Perspectives: Ancient and Medieval Times
"London" Smog: Sulfur Dioxide, Acidic Aerosols, and Soot
"Los Angeles" Smog: Ozone and Photochemical Oxidants
Acid Deposition
Chemistry of the Natural Troposphere: Remote Atmospheres
Chemistry of the Stratosphere
Global Climate Change
Indoor Air Pollution
Discussion Topic and OZIPR Model
Discussion Topic: "Background Ozone"
OZIPR Model
The Atmospheric System
Emissions
Oxides of Nitrogen
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
Carbon Monoxide
Sulfur Compounds
Total Suspended Particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5
Lead
Meteorology
Lapse Rate: Temperature and Altitude
Potential Temperature
Temperature Inversions
Removal from the Atmosphere: Wet and Dry Deposition
Typical Ambient Concentrations and Air Quality Standards
Units of Concentrations and Conversions
Criteria and Noncriteria Pollutants and Air Quality Standards
Effects on Visibility and Materials
Economics
Atmospheric Chemistry: Risk Assessments and Public Policies for Air Pollution Control
Spectroscopy and Photochemistry: Fundamentals
Basic Principles
Molecular Energy Levels and Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy
Fates of Electronically Excited Molecules
Absorption of Light
Basic Relationships
The Beer - Lambert Law
Atmospheric Photochemistry
Solar Radiation and Its Transmission through the Atmosphere
Calculating Photolysis Rates in the Atmosphere
Procedure for Calculating Photolysis Rates
Example: Photolysis of Acetaldehyde at the Earth's Surface
Photochemistry of Important Atmospheric Species
Molecular Oxygen
Absorption Spectra
Photochemistry
Ozone
Absorption Spectra
Photochemistry
Nitrogen Dioxide
Absorption Spectra
Photochemistry
Nitric ACID
Nitrous ACID
Peroxynitric ACID
Nitrate Radical
Dinitrogen Pentoxide
Nitrous Oxide
Organic Nitrates and Peroxyacetyl Nitrate
Organic Nitrates
Peroxyacetyl Nitrate
Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfur Trioxide
SO[subscript 2]
SO[subscript 3]
Hydrogen Peroxide and Organic Hydroperoxides
Aldehydes and Ketones
Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO[subscript 2]) and Bromine Nitrate (BrONO[subscript 2])
HCl and HBr
The Halogens
ClO, BrO, and IO
ClOOCl
OClO
HOCl, HOBr, and HOI
Nitrosyl Chloride (ClNO) and Nitryl Chloride (ClNO[subscript 2])
Halogenated Methanes and Ethanes
Kinetics and Atmospheric Chemistry
Fundamental Principles of Gas-Phase Kinetics
Definitions
Termolecular Reactions and Pressure Dependence of Rate Constants
Temperature Dependence of Rate Constants
Laboratory Techniques for Determining Absolute Rate Constants for Gas-Phase Reactions
Kinetic Analysis
Fast-Flow Systems
Flash Photolysis Systems
Pulse Radiolysis
Cavity Ring Down Method
Static Techniques
Laboratory Techniques for Determining Relative Rate Constants for Gas-Phase Reactions
Reactions in Solution
Interactions of Gaseous Air Pollutants with Atmospheric Aqueous Solutions
Diffusion-Controlled Reactions of Uncharged Nonpolar Species in Solution
Reactions of Charged Species in Solution
Experimental Techniques Used for Studying Solution Reactions
Laboratory Techniques for Studying Heterogeneous Reactions
Analysis of Systems with Gas- and Liquid-Phase Diffusion, Mass Accommodation, and Reactions in the Liquid Phase or at the Interface
Knudsen Cells
Flow Tube Studies
Falling-Droplet Apparatus
Bubble Apparatus
Aerosol Chambers
Liquid Jet Apparatus
DRIFTS
Surface Science Techniques
Other Methods
Compilations of Kinetic Data for Atmospheric Reactions
Rates and Mechanisms of Gas-Phase Reactions in Irradiated Organic-NO[subscript x]-Air Mixtures
Sources of Oxidants in the Troposphere: OH, O[subscript 3], NO[subscript 3], HO[subscript 2], and Cl
OH
O[subscript 3]
NO[subscript 3]
HO[subscript 2]
Cl
Lifetimes of Typical Organics in the Troposphere
Reactions of Alkanes
Hydroxyl Radical (OH)
Nitrate Radical (NO[subscript 3])
Chlorine Atoms (Cl)
Reactions of Alkyl (R), Alkylperoxy (RO[subscript 2]), and Alkoxy (RO) Radicals in Air
Alkyl Radicals (R)
Alkylperoxy Radicals (RO[subscript 2])
Alkoxy Radicals (RO)
Summary of R, RO[subscript 2], and RO Radical Reactions in the Troposphere
Reactions of Alkenes (Including Biocenics)
Hydroxyl Radical (OH)
Ozone (O[subscript 3])
Nitrate Radical (NO[subscript 3])
Chlorine Atoms (Cl)
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO[subscript 2])
Reactions of Alkynes
Hydroxyl Radical (OH)
Reactions of Simple Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Hydroxyl Radical (OH)
Nitrate Radical (NO[subscript 3])
Chlorine Atoms (Cl)
Reactions of Oxygen-Containing Organics
Reactions of OH, NO[subscript 3], and Cl
Hydroperoxyl Radical (HO[subscript 2])
Reactions of Nitrogenous Organics
Peroxyacetyl Nitrate and Its Homologs
Alkyl Nitrates and Nitrites
Amines, Nitrosamines, and Hydrazines
Chemistry of Remote Regions
Emissions of Biogenic Organics
Chemistry
Upper Troposphere
Arctic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Biomass Burning
Chemistry of Inorganic Nitrogen Compounds
Oxidation of No To NO[subscript 2] and the Leighton Relationship
Oxidation of NO[subscript 2]
Daytime Gas-Phase Reaction with OH
Nighttime Reactions to Form NO[subscript 3] and N[subscript 2]O[subscript 5]
Reactions of NO and NO[subscript 2] with Water and Alcohols
Other Reactions of NO[subscript 2]
Atmospheric Chemistry of Hono
Formation of HONO
Atmospheric Fates of HONO
Reactions of NO[subscript 3] and N[subscript 2]O[subscript 5]
Reactions of NO[subscript 3]
Reactions of N[subscript 2]O[subscript 5]
Atmospheric Chemistry of HNO[subscript 3]
Formation
Tropospheric Fates
"Missing" NO[subscript y]
Ammonia (NH[subscript 3])
Acid Deposition: Formation and Fates of Inorganic and Organic Acids in the Troposphere
Contribution of H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], HNO[subscript 3], HONO, and Organic Acids
Solubility of Gases in Rain, Fogs, and Clouds: Henry's Law and Aqueous-Phase Equilibria
Oxidation of SO[subscript 2]
Field Studies
Oxidation in the Gas Phase
Oxidation in the Aqueous Phase
Oxidation on Surfaces
Relative Importance of Various Oxidation Pathways for SO[subscript 2]
Organic Acids
Oxidation of Sulfur Compounds Other Than SO[subscript 2]
Reactions of Dimethyl Sulfide (CH[subscript 3]SCH[subscript 3])
Dimethyl Disulfide (CH[subscript 3]SSCH[subscript 3])
Methyl Mercaptan (CH[subscript 3]SH)
Hydrogen Sulfide (H[subscript 2]S)
Carbon Disulfide (CS[subscript 2])
Carbonyl Sulfide (COS)
Particles in the Troposphere
Physical Properties
Some Definitions
Size Distributions
Particle Motion
Light Scattering and Absorption and Their Relationship to Visibility Reduction
Reactions Involved in Particle Formation and Growth
Nucleation, Condensation, and Coagulation
Reactions of Gases at Particle Surfaces
Reactions in the Aqueous Phase
Relative Importance of Various Aerosol Growth Mechanisms
Chemical Composition of Tropospheric Aerosols
Inorganic Species
Organics
GAS-Particle Distribution of Semivolatile Organics
Adsorption on Solid Particles
Absorption into Liquids
Octanol - Air Partitioning Coefficients
Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives: Atmospheric Chemistry and Toxicological Implications
Nomenclature and Selected Physical and Spectroscopic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PACs)
Combustion-Generated PAHs and PACs
Structures and IUPAC Rules for Nomenclature
Solubilities and Vapor Pressures
Gas - Particle Partitioning, Sampling Techniques, and Ambient Levels of Selected PAHs and PACs
Absorption and Emission Spectra of Selected PAHs and PACs
Biological Properties of PAHs and PACs I: Carcinogenicity
Historical Perspective: Benzo[a]pyrene, the "Classic Chemical Carcinogen"
Carcinogenicity of PAHs, Cancer Potencies, and Potency Equivalence Factors
Carcinogenicity of Nitroarenes and Other Nitro-PACs
Biological Properties of PAHs and PACs II: Mutagenicity
Short-Term Tests for Genetic and Related Effects
The Ames Salmonella typhimurium Reversion Assay
The Salmonella TM677 "Forward Mutation" Assay
Human Cell Mutagenicities of PAHs and PACs
Bacterial and Human Cell Mutagenicities of Polluted Ambient Air
Bacterial Mutagenicity of Urban Air: A Worldwide Phenomenon
Sources, Ambient Levels, Transport, and Transformation: Some Case Studies
Bioassay-Directed Chemical Analysis for PAHs and PACs in Fine Ambient Aerosols Using a Human Cell Assay
Bioassay-Directed Chemical Analysis for Vapor-Phase and Particle-Phase PAHs and PACs in Ambient Air Using Bacterial Assays
Atmospheric Fates of Particle-Associated PAHs: Heterogeneous Reactions
Background
Theoretical and Experimental Structure - Reactivity Relationships
Field Studies of Atmospheric Reactions: Transport and Transformation
Photochemical Reactions of Particle-Associated PAHs
Gas - Particle Reactions
Atmospheric Fates of Particle-Associated Nitroarenes
Reactions of Gas-Phase PAHs: Atmospheric Formation of Mutagenic Nitroarenes
Combustion-Generated Primary Emissions of Nitroarenes
Atmospheric Formation of Nitro-PAHs and Nitro-PACs
Analytical Methods and Typical Atmospheric Concentrations for Gases and Particles
Gases
Optical Spectroscopic Techniques
Mass Spectrometry
Filters, Denuders, Transition Flow Reactors, Mist Chambers, and Scrubbers
Methods for, and Tropospheric Levels of, Specific Gases
Generation of Standard Gas Mixtures
Particles
Sampling and Collection of Particles
Measurement of Physical Characteristics: Mass and Size
Measurement of Chemcial Composition
Real-Time Monitoring Techniques for Particles
Generation of Calibration Aerosols
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Stratosphere
Chemistry of the Unperturbed Stratosphere
Stratosphere - Troposphere Exchange (STE)
Chapman Cycle and NO[subscript x] Chemistry
High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), Rockets, and the Space Shuttle
HSCT
Space Shuttle and Solid Rocket Motors
Chlorofluorocarbons
Types, Nomenclature, and Uses
Lifetimes and Atmospheric Fates of CFCs and Halons
Gas-Phase Chemistry in the Stratosphere
Antarctic "Ozone Hole"
Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) and Aerosols
Effects of Volcanic Eruptions
Ozone Depletion in the Arctic
Ozone Destruction in the Midlatitudes
Contribution of Brominated Organics
Sources and Sinks of Brominated Organics
Bromine Chemistry in the Stratosphere
Contribution of Iodine-Containing Organics
Summary
Scientific Basis for Control of Halogenated Organics
International Agreements on Phaseout of Halogenated Organics
Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP)
Trends in CFCs, Their Replacements, Stratospheric O[subscript 3], and Surface UV
Trends in CFCs and Their Replacements
Trends in Stratospheric O[subscript 3]
Trends in Surface Ultraviolet Radiation
Tropospheric Chemistry of Alternate CFCs
Kinetics of OH Reactions
Tropospheric Chemistry
Summary
Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate Change
Radiation Balance of the Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect
Global Absorption and Emission of Radiation
Radiative Transfer Processes in the Atmosphere
Dependence of Net Infrared Absorption on Atmospheric Concentrations
Contribution of Trace Gases to the Greenhouse Effect
Infrared Absorption by Trace Gases
Trends in Trace Gas Concentrations
Radiative Forcing by Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials
Aerosol Particles, Atmospheric Radiation, and Climate Change
Direct Effects
Indirect Effects of Aerosol Particles
Some Other Factors Affecting Global Climate
Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds
Feedbacks: Water Vapor, Clouds, and the "Supergreenhouse Effect"
Solar Variability
Volcanic Eruptions
Oceans
Observations of Climate Changes
Observed Temperature Trends
Other Climate Changes
The Future
Indoor Air Pollution: Sources, Levels, Chemistry, and Fates
Radon
Oxides of Nitrogen
Levels of NO[subscript x]
HONO and HNO[subscript 3]
CO and SO[subscript 2]
Volatile Organic Compounds
Ozone
Indoor VOC-NO[subscript x]-O[subscript 3] Chemistry
Particles
Applications of Atmospheric Chemistry: Air Pollution Control Strategies and Risk Assessments for Tropospheric Ozone and Associated Photochemical Oxidants, Acids, Particles, and Hazardous Air Pollutants
Tropospheric Ozone and Associated Photochemical Oxidants
Environmental Chambers
Isopleths for Ozone and Other Photochemically Derived Species
Models
Reactivity of VOC
Typical Reactivity Scales
Application to Control of Mobile Source Emissions
Field Observations of VOC, NO[subscript x], and O[subscript 3]
Alternate Fuels
Reformulated Gasolines
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Alcohol Fuels and Blends with Gasoline
Hydrogen
Electric Vehicles
Control of ACIDS
Control of Particles
Atmopsheric Chemistry and Risk Assessments of Hazardous Air Pollutants
Enthalpies of Formation of Some Gaseous Molecules, Atoms, and Free Radicals at 298 K
Bond Dissociation Energies
Running the OZIPR Model
Some Relevant Web Sites
Pressures and Temperatures for Standard Atmosphere
Answers to Selected Problems
Subject Index

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