Measurement by the Physical Educator: Why and How

ISBN-10: 0078022681
ISBN-13: 9780078022685
Edition: 2013
Authors: David Miller
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Description: The purpose of this text is to help the physical education, exercise science, or kinesiology major develop the necessary confidence and skills to conduct measurement techniques properly and effectively. However, more than just measurement techniques  More...

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Book details

List price: $162.60
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: McGraw-Hill College
Binding: Cloth Text 
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.55" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

The purpose of this text is to help the physical education, exercise science, or kinesiology major develop the necessary confidence and skills to conduct measurement techniques properly and effectively. However, more than just measurement techniques are presented. Emphasis is placed upon the reasons for the measurement and the responsibilities after measurement is completed. These inclusions should help the student develop an appreciation of the need for measurement in a variety of settings. In addition, every effort has been made to present all the material in an uncomplicated way, and only practical measurement techniques are included.

Preface
Measurement, Evaluation, Assessment, and Statistics
Reasons for Measurement, Evaluation, and Assessment by the Physical Educator
Motivation
Diagnosis
Classification
Achievement
Evaluation of Instruction and Programs
Prediction
Research
Why Statistics?
Analyze and Interpret Data
Interpret Research
Standardized Test Scores
Determine the Worth (Validity and Reliability) of a Test
Chapter Review Questions
Describing and Presenting a Distribution of Scores
Statistical Terms
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
Normal Distribution
Analysis of Ungrouped Data
Score Rank
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
Which Measure of Central Tendency Is Best for Interpretation of Test Results?
Measures of Variability
The Range
The Quartile Deviation
The Standard Deviation
Relationship of Standard Deviation and Normal Curve
Which Measure of Variability Is Best for Interpretation of Test Results?
Percentiles and Percentile Ranks
Frequency Distribution
Graphs
Standard Scores
z-Scores
T-Scores
Percentiles
Statistics Software
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Investigating the Relationship between Scores
Linear Correlation
Scattergram
Spearman Rank-Difference Correlation Coefficient
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient
Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
Coefficient of Determination
Negative Correlation Coefficients
Correlation, Regression, and Prediction
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Investigating the Difference in Scores
Testing for Significant Difference between Two Means
Dependent and Independent Variables
The Null Hypothesis
Degrees of Freedom
Level of Significance
Standard Error of the Mean
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
t-Test for Independent Groups
t-Test for Dependent Groups
Review Problems
Testing for Significant Difference among Three or More Means
Special Terms and Symbols
Analysis of Variance for Independent Groups
Post Hoc Test For Independent Groups
Analysis of Variance for Repeated Measures
Post Hoc Test for Repeated Measures
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
What Is a Good Test?
Criterion-Referenced Measurement
Norm-Referenced Measurement
Validity
Validity of Criterion-Referenced Tests
Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests
Factors Affecting Validity
Reliability
Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Tests
Reliability of Norm-Referenced Tests
Factors Affecting Reliability
Objectivity
Administrative Feasibility
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Construction of Knowledge Tests
Steps in Construction of a Test
Test Planning
Test Item Construction
Test Administration
Item Analysis
Item Revision
Objective Test Items
True-False Items
Multiple-Choice Items
Matching Items
Short-Answer and Completion Items
Essay Test Items
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Assessing and Grading the Students
Characteristics of Authentic Assessment
Formal Record Keeping
Natural Surroundings
Formative and Summative Assessment
Technique (Form) and End Result
Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment
Portfolio Assessment
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)
Grading
Use of Grades
Students
Parents
Teachers
Administrators
Factors Used in Grading
Affective Factors
Cognitive Factors
Psychomotor Factors
Criteria for Grades
Methods of Grading
Norm-Referenced Grading
Criterion-Referenced Grading
Which Method of Grading Is Best?
Weighting of Factors
Reporting of Final Grades
Review Problem
Chapter Review Questions
Construction and Administration of Psychomotor Tests
Test Construction Guidelines
Know What Is Required of a Good Test
Define the Performance to Be Measured
Analyze the Performance
Review the Literature
Devise the Test Items
Prepare the Directions
Have the Test Reviewed by Your Peers
Administer the Test to a Small Group of Students
Determine the Validity, Reliability, and Objectivity
Develop the Norms
Determine Intercorrelations
Test Administration Responsibilities
Pre-test Responsibilities
Testing Responsibilities
Post-test Responsibilities
Types of Psychomotor Tests
Review Problem
Chapter Review Questions
Agility
Why Measure Agility?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Tests of Agility
Activities to Develop Agility
Changes in the Height of the Body in lumps
Changes in Distance
Changes in Direction
Other Agility Activities
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Balance
Why Measure Balance?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Tests of Balance
Static Balance Tests
Dynamic Balance Tests
Activities to Develop Balance
Static Balance Activities
Dynamic Balance Activities
Recapturing Balance Activities
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Why Measure Cardiorespiratory Fitness?
Pre-Test/Pre-Activity Screening
Responsibilities after Measurement
Tests of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Development of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Flexibility
Why Measure Flexibility?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Tests of Flexibility
Exercises to Develop Flexibility
Neck
Shoulder and Upper Chest
Upper Back
Lower Back
Trunk
Posterior Hip, Upper Leg, and Lower Back
Anterior Hip and Thigh
Groin Area
Posterior Lower Leg
Foot and Ankle
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power
Why Measure Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance
Tests with Weight-Training Equipment
Tests Requiring Limited Equipment
Tests of Muscular Power
Exercises to Develop Muscular Strength and Endurance
Posterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back
Anterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back
Abdomen
Lateral Trunk
Lower Back and Buttocks
Lateral Hips and Thighs
Upper Legs
Lower Legs
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Anthropometry and Body Composition
Why Measure Body Structure and Composition?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Body Type Classification (Somatotyping)
Height-Weight Tables
Elbow Breadth
Ankle Girth
Body Composition
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
Air Displacement Plethysmography (BOD POD)
Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
Underwater Weighing
Skinfold Tests
Estimating Percent Body Fat
Optimal Percent Body Fat and Desirable Body Weight
Cooper Method for Determining Ideal Weight
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Fat Distribution
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Physical Fitness
Why Measure Physical Fitness?
Guidelines for the Administration and Use of Fitness Tests
Norm-Referenced Standards versus Criterion-Referenced Standards
Responsibilities after Measurement
Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness
Tests of Skill-Related Physical Fitness
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Older Adults
Why Measure Functional Fitness?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Testing Guidelines
Tests of Functional Fitness
Physical Activity for the Older Adult
Activity
Frequency
Duration
Intensity
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Special-Needs Populations
Why Measure Special-Needs Populations?
Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced Tests?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Perceptual-Motor Performance Tests
Motor Performance Tests
Physical Fitness Tests
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Sports Skills
Why Measure Sports Skills?
Responsibilities after Measurement
Individual and Dual Sports
Archery
Badminton
Golf
Handball
Racquetball
Tennis
Team Sports
Basketball
Field Hockey
Football
Soccer
Softball
Volleyball
Review Problems
Chapter Review Questions
Sources of Additional Sports Skills Tests
Archery
Badminton
Basketball
Bowling
Field Hockey
Football
Golf
Handball
Racquetball
Soccer
Softball
Swimming
Tennis
Volleyball
Appendixes
Values of the Correlation Coefficient (r)
Critical Values of t (Two-Tailed Test)
F-Distribution
Values of the Studentized Range (q)
References and Additional Reading
Index

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