An Introduction to Statistics | |

Features of the Book | |

Tips for Doing Well in Statistics: How to Succeed in Statistics by Really Trying | |

A Note About Notation and Rounding | |

Hypotheses | |

Variables | |

Scales of Measurement | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Problems | |

References | |

Frequency Distributions | |

Ranked Distributions | |

Frequency Distributions | |

Grouped Frequency Distributions | |

Apparent Limits and Real Limits: What You See Versus What is Meant | |

Midpoint: The Center of the Class Interval | |

Visual Summary: Creating a Group Frequency Distribution | |

Cumulative Frequency | |

Relative Frequency and Cumulative Relative Frequency | |

Cumulative Percent | |

On the Internet: Creating a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Graphs | |

Basics in Constructing a Graph | |

Frequency Histogram | |

Frequency Polygon | |

Relative Frequency Polygon | |

Cumulative Frequency Polygon | |

Cumulative Relative Frequency Polygon | |

Cumulative Percent Polygon | |

Stem and Leaf Diagrams | |

Changing the Shape of a Graph | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Problems | |

Measures of Central Tendency | |

The Mean | |

The Median | |

The Mode | |

Mean, Median, or Mode: A Question of Skew | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Reference | |

Measures of Variability | |

The Range | |

Mean Deviation | |

The Variance: The Mean of the Squared Deviations | |

Standard Deviation: The Square Root of the Variance | |

Computational Formulas | |

Calculating Variability from Grouped Frequency Distributions | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Reference | |

Scaled Scores and Standard Scores: How to Change Apples into Oranges | |

Scales Scores | |

Adding or Subtracting a Constant: No change in Variability | |

Multiplying or Dividing by a Constant: A Concurrent Change in Mean and Standard Deviation | |

Standard Scores (z Scores) | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

The Normal Curve | |

Characteristics of the Normal Curve | |

Finding Proportions and Percentages | |

Finding Percentiles | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Correlation | |

The Nature of Correlation | |

Types of Correlation: How Are Variables Related? | |

Degree of Correlation: How Strongly Are Variables Related? | |

The Correlation Coefficient | |

The Covariance | |

Computing the Correlation Coefficient | |

Computational Formulas for the Covariance and Correlation Coefficient | |

The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient | |

Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient: What do the Numbers Mean? | |

Using Table R | |

The Coefficient of Determination | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

References | |

Regression | |

Making Predictions via Linear Regression | |

The Regression Line: Faster Predictions | |

The Standard Error of the EstimateSummary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Probability Theory and Sampling | |

Probability Theory | |

Sampling | |

The Standard Error of the Estimate | |

The Central Limit Theorem | |

The z Test | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Experimental Design | |

Developing a Hypothesis | |

Identifying Variables | |

Factors in Experimental Design | |

Important Aspects of Experimental Design | |

Statistical Significance | |

Power | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Problems | |

References | |

t TESTS | |

z Tests (A Review) | |

t Tests | |

Single-Sample t Tests | |

t Tests between Two Independent Sample Means | |

t Tests for Correlated Samples | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

One-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Analysis of Variance: One Test is Better Than Many | |

Hypothesis Testing and Analysis of Variance | |

Conducting an Analysis of Variance | |

The F Test | |

Computational Formula for F | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Reference | |

Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Main Effects | |

Interaction | |

Computation of Sums of Squares for Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Computation of Degrees of Freedom for Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Computation of the Mean Squares for Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Computation of the F Ratios for Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Significance of the Main Effects | |

Significance of the Interaction | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

Reference | |

Chi-Square and Other Nonparametric Statistics | |

Chi-Square | |

The Mann-Whitney U Test | |

The Wilcoxen T Test | |

The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

Summary | |

Key Terms | |

Formulas | |

Problems | |

References | |

Tables | |

Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems | |

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