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Preface | |

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Introduction | |

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Elements of a Digital Communication System | |

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Communication Channels and Their Characteristics | |

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Mathematical Models for Communication Channels | |

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A Historical Perspective in the Development of Digital Communications | |

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Overview of the Book | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Probability and Stochastic Processes | |

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Probability | |

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Random Variables, Probability Distributions, and Probability Densities | |

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Functions of Random Variables | |

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Statistical Averages of Random Variables | |

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Some Useful Probability Distributions | |

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Upper Bounds on the Tail Probability | |

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Sums of Random Variables and the Central Limit Theorem | |

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Stochastic Processes | |

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Statistical Averages | |

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Power Density Spectrum | |

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Response of a Linear Time-Invariant System to a Random Input Signal | |

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Sampling Theorem for Band-Limited Stochastic Processes | |

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Discrete-Time Stochastic Signals and Systems | |

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Cyclostationary Processes | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Source Coding | |

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Mathematical Models for Information Sources | |

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A Logarithmic Measure of Information | |

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Average Mutual Information and Entropy | |

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Information Measures for Continuous Random Variables | |

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Coding for Discrete Sources | |

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Coding for Discrete Memoryless Sources | |

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Discrete Stationary Sources | |

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The Lempel-Ziv Algorithm | |

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Coding for Analog Sources--Optimum Quantization | |

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Rate-Distortion Function | |

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Scalar Quantization | |

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Vector Quantization | |

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Coding Techniques for Analog Sources | |

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Temporal Waveform Coding | |

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Spectral Waveform Coding | |

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Model-Based Source Coding | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Characterization of Communication Signals and Systems | |

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Representation of Band-Pass Signals and Systems | |

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Representation of Band-Pass Signals | |

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Representation of Linear Band-Pass Systems | |

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Response of a Band-Pass System to a Band-Pass Signal | |

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Representation of Band-Pass Stationary Stochastic Processes | |

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Signal Space Representations | |

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Vector Space Concepts | |

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Signal Space Concepts | |

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Orthogonal Expansions of Signals | |

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Representation of Digitally Modulated Signals | |

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Memoryless Modulation Methods | |

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Linear Modulation with Memory | |

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Non-linear Modulation Methods with Memory--CPFSK and CPM | |

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Spectral Characteristics of Digitally Modulated Signals | |

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Power Spectra of Linearly Modulated Signals | |

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Power Spectra of CPFSK and CPM Signals | |

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Power Spectra of Modulated Signals with Memory | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problem | |

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Optimum Receivers for the Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel | |

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Optimum Receiver for Signals Corrupted by Additive White Gaussian Noise | |

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Correlation Demodulator | |

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Matched-Filter Demodulator | |

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The Optimum Detector | |

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The Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detector | |

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A Symbol-by-Symbol MAP Detector for Signals with Memory | |

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Performance of the Optimum Receiver for Memoryless Modulation | |

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Probability of Error for Binary Modulation | |

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Probability of Error for M-ary Orthogonal Signals | |

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Probability of Error for M-ary Biorthogonal Signals | |

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Probability of Error for Simplex Signals | |

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Probability of Error for M-ary Binary-Coded Signals | |

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Probability of Error for M-ary PAM | |

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Probability of Error for M-ary PSK | |

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Differential PSK (DPSK) and Its Performance | |

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Probability of Error for QAM | |

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Comparison of Digital Modulation Methods | |

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Optimum Receiver for CPM Signals | |

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Optimum Demodulation and Detection of CPM | |

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Performance of CPM Signals | |

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Symbol-by-Symbol Detection of CPM Signals | |

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Suboptimum Demodulation and Detection of CPM Signals | |

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Optimum Receiver for Signals with Random Phase in AWGN Channel | |

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Optimum Receiver for Binary Signals | |

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Optimum Receiver for M-ary Orthogonal Signals | |

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Probability of Error for Envelope Detection of M-ary Orthogonal Signals | |

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Probability of Error for Envelope Detection of Correlated Binary Signals | |

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Performance Analysis for Wireline and Radio Communication Systems | |

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Regenerative Repeaters | |

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Link Budget Analysis in Radio Communication Systems | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Carrier and Symbol Synchronziation | |

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Signal Parameter Estimation | |

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The Likelihood Function | |

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Carrier Recovery and Symbol Synchronization in Signal Demodulation | |

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Carrier Phase Estimation | |

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Maximum-Likelihood Carrier Phase Estimation | |

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The Phase-Locked Loop | |

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Effect of Additive Noise on the Phase Estimate | |

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Decision-Directed Loops | |

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Non-Decision-Directed Loops | |

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Symbol Timing Estimation | |

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Maximum-Likelihood Timing Estimation | |

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Non-Decision-Directed Timing Estimation | |

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Joint Estimation of Carrier Phase and Symbol Timing | |

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Performance Characteristics of ML Estimators | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Channel Capacity and Coding | |

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Channel Models and Channel Capacity | |

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Channel Models | |

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Channel Capacity | |

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Achieving Channel Capacity with Orthogonal Signals | |

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Channel Reliability Functions | |

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Random Selection of Codes | |

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Random Coding Based on M-ary Binary-Coded Signals | |

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Random Coding Based on M-ary Multiamplitude Signals | |

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Comparison of R*[subscript 0] with the Capacity of the AWGN Channel | |

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Communication System Design Based on the Cutoff Rate | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Block and Convolutional Channel Codes | |

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Linear Block Codes | |

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The Generator Matrix and the Parity Check Matrix | |

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Some Specific Linear Block Codes | |

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Cyclic Codes | |

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Optimum Soft-Decision Decoding of Linear Block Codes | |

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Hard-Decision Decoding of Linear Block Codes | |

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Comparison of Performance Between Hard-Decision and Soft-Decision Decoding | |

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Bounds on Minimum Distance of Linear Block Codes | |

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Nonbinary Block Codes and Concatenated Block Codes | |

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Interleaving of Coded Data for Channels with Burst Errors | |

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Serial and Parallel Concatenated Block Codes | |

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Convolutional Codes | |

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The Transfer Function of a Convolutional Code | |

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Optimum Decoding of Convolutional Codes--The Viterbi Algorithm | |

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Probability of Error for Soft-Decision Decoding | |

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Probability of Error for Hard-Decision Decoding | |

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Distance Properties of Binary Convolutional Codes | |

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Punctured Convolutional Codes | |

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Other Decoding Algorithms for Convolutional Codes | |

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Practical Considerations in the Application of Convolutional Codes | |

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Nonbinary Dual-k Codes and Concatenated Codes | |

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Parallel and Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes | |

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Coded Modulation for Bandwidth-Constrained Channels--Trellis-Coded Modulation | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Signal Design for Band-Limited Channels | |

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Characterization of Band-Limited Channels | |

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Signal Design for Band-Limited Channels | |

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Design of Band-Limited Signals for No Intersymbol Interference--The Nyquist Criterion | |

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Design of Band-Limited Signals with Controlled ISI--Partial-Response Signals | |

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Data Detection for Controlled ISI | |

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Signal Design for Channels with Distortion | |

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Probability of Error in Detection of PAM | |

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Probability of Error for Detection of PAM with Zero ISI | |

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Probability of Error for Detection of Partial-Response Signals | |

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Modulation Codes for Spectrum Shaping | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Communication Through Band-Limited Linear Filter Channels | |

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Optimum Receiver for Channels with ISI and AWGN | |

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Optimum Maximum-Likelihood Receiver | |

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A Discrete-Time Model for a Channel with ISI | |

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The Viterbi Algorithm for the Discrete-Time White Noise Filter Model | |

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Performance of MLSE for Channels with ISI | |

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Linear Equalization | |

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Peak Distortion Criterion | |

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Mean-Square-Error (MSE) Criterion | |

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Performance Characteristics of the MSE Equalizer | |

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Fractionally Spaced Equalizers | |

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Baseband and Passband Linear Equalizers | |

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Decision-Feedback Equalization | |

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Coefficient Optimization | |

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Performance Characteristics of DFE | |

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Predictive Decision-Feedback Equalizer | |

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Equalization at the Transmitter--Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding | |

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Reduced Complexity ML Detectors | |

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Iterative Equalization and Decoding--Turbo Equalization | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Adaptive Equalization | |

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Adaptive Linear Equalizer | |

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The Zero-Forcing Algorithm | |

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The LMS Algorithm | |

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Convergence Properties of the LMS Algorithm | |

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Excess MSE Due to Noisy Gradient Estimates | |

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Accelerating the Initial Convergence Rate in the LMS Algorithm | |

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Adaptive Fractionally Spaced Equalizer--The Tap Leakage Algorithm | |

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An Adaptive Channel Estimator for ML Sequence Detection | |

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Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizer | |

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Adaptive Equalization of Trellis-Coded Signals | |

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Recursive Least-Squares Algorithms for Adaptive Equalization | |

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Recursive Least-Squares (Kalman) Algorithm | |

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Linear Prediction and the Lattice Filter | |

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Self-Recovering (Blind) Equalization | |

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Blind Equalization Based on the Maximum-Likelihood Criterion | |

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Stochastic Gradient Algorithms | |

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Blind Equalization Algorithms Based on Second- and Higher-Order Signal Statistics | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Multichannel and Multicarrier Systems | |

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Multichannel Digital Communications in AWGN Channels | |

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Binary Signals | |

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M-ary Orthogonal Signals | |

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Multicarrier Communications | |

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Capacity of a Nonideal Linear Filter Channel | |

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An FFT-Based Multicarrier System | |

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Minimizing Peak-to-Average Ratio in the Multicarrier Systems | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Spread Spectrum Signals for Digital Communications | |

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Model of Spread Spectrum Digital Communication System | |

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Signals | |

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Error Rate Performance of the Decoder | |

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Some Applications of DS Spread Spectrum Signals | |

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Effect of Pulsed Interference on DS Spread Spectrum Systems | |

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Excision of Narrowband Interference in DS Spread Spectrum Systems | |

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Generation of PN Sequences | |

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Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum Signals | |

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Performance of FH Spread Spectrum Signals in an AWGN Channel | |

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Performance of FH Spread Spectrum Signals in Partial-Band Interference | |

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A CDMA System Based on FH Spread Spectrum Signals | |

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Other Types of Spread Spectrum Signals | |

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Synchronization of Spread Spectrum Systems | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Digital Communications through Fading Multipath Channels | |

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Characterization of Fading Multipath Channels | |

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Channel Correlation Functions and Power Spectra | |

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Statistical Models for Fading Channels | |

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The Effect of Signal Characteristics on the Choice of a Channel Model | |

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Frequency-Nonselective, Slowly Fading Channel | |

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Diversity Techniques for Fading Multipath Channels | |

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Binary Signals | |

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Multiphase Signals | |

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M-ary Orthogonal Signals | |

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Digital Signaling over a Frequency-Selective, Slowly Fading Channel | |

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A Tapped-Delay-Line Channel Model | |

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The RAKE Demodulator | |

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Performance of RAKE Demodulator | |

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Receiver Structures for Channels with Intersymbol Interference | |

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Coded Waveforms for Fading Channels | |

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Probability of Error for Soft-Decision Decoding of Linear Binary Block Codes | |

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Probability of Error for Hard-Decision Decoding of Linear Binary Block Codes | |

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Upper Bounds on the Performance of Convolutional Codes for a Rayleigh Fading Channel | |

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Use of Constant-Weight Codes and Concatenated Codes for a Fading Channel | |

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System Design Based on the Cutoff Rate | |

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Performance of Coded Phase-Coherent Communication Systems--Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation | |

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Trellis-Coded Modulation | |

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Multiple-Antenna Systems | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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Multiuser Communications | |

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Introduction to Multiple Access Techniques | |

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Capacity of Multiple Access Methods | |

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Code-Division Multiple Access | |

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CDMA Signal and Channel Models | |

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The Optimum Receiver | |

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Suboptimum Detectors | |

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Successive Interference Cancellation | |

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Performance Characteristics of Detectors | |

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Random Access Methods | |

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ALOHA Systems and Protocols | |

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Carrier Sense Systems and Protocols | |

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Bibliographical Notes and References | |

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Problems | |

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The Levinson-Durbin Algorithm | |

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Error Probability for Multichannel Binary Signals | |

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Error Probabilities for Adaptive Reception of M-Phase Signals | |

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Mathematical Model for M-Phase Signaling Communication System | |

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Characteristic Function and Probability Density Function of the Phase [theta] | |

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Error Probabilities for Slowly Rayleigh Fading Channels | |

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Error Probabilities for Time-Invariant and Ricean Fading Channels | |

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Square-Root Factorization | |

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References and Bibliography | |

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Index | |