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Preface | |

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Introduction to Electronics | |

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Theory | |

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Current | |

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Voltage | |

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Resistance | |

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DC Power Sources | |

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Two Simple Battery Sources | |

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Electric Circuits | |

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Ohm's Law | |

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Circuit Reduction | |

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Kirchhoff's Laws | |

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Thevenin's Theorem | |

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Sinusoidal Power Sources | |

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Root Mean Square (rms) Voltages | |

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Capacitors | |

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Reactance of a Capacitor | |

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Inductors | |

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Reactance of an Inductor | |

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Fundamental Potentials and Circuits | |

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DC Sources and RC/RL/RLC Circuits | |

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Complex Numbers | |

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Circuits with Sinusoidal Sources | |

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Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with Complex Impedances | |

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Impedances in Series and the Voltage Divider | |

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Impedances in Parallel and the Current Divider | |

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Applying Kirchhoff's Laws in AC Form | |

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Thevenin's Theorem in AC Form | |

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Power in AC Circuits | |

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Decibels | |

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Resonance in LC Circuits | |

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Resonance in RLC Circuits | |

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Filters | |

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Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources | |

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Circuits with Nonperiodic Sources | |

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Nonlinear Circuits and Analyzing Circuits by Intuition | |

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Basic Electronic Circuit Components | |

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Wires, Cables, and Connectors | |

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Wires | |

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Cables | |

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Connectors | |

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Wiring and Connector Symbols | |

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High-Frequency Effects within Wires and Cables | |

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Batteries | |

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How a Cell Works | |

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Primary Batteries | |

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Comparing Primary Batteries | |

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Secondary Batteries | |

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Battery Capacity | |

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Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery | |

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Switches | |

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How a Switch Works | |

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Describing a Switch | |

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Kinds of Switches | |

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Simple Switch Applications | |

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Relays | |

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Specific Kinds of Relays | |

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A Few Notes about Relays | |

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Some Simple Relay Circuits | |

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Resistors | |

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How a Resistor Works | |

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Basic Resistor Operation | |

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Types of Fixed Resistors | |

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Understanding Resistor Labels | |

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Power Ratings for Resistors | |

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Variable Resistors | |

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Capacitors | |

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How a Capacitor Works | |

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A Note about I = CdV/dt | |

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Water Analogy of a Capacitor | |

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Basic Capacitor Functions | |

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Kinds of Capacitors | |

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Variable Capacitors | |

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Reading Capacitor Labels | |

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Important Things to Know about Capacitors | |

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Applications | |

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Inductors | |

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How an Inductor Works | |

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Basic Inductor Operation | |

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Kinds of Coils | |

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Transformers | |

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Basic Operation | |

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Special Kinds of Transformers | |

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Applications | |

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Real Kinds of Transformers | |

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Fuses and Circuit Breakers | |

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Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers | |

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Semiconductors | |

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Semiconductor Technology | |

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What Is a Semiconductor? | |

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Applications of Silicon | |

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Diodes | |

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How a pn-Junction Diode Works | |

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Diode Water Analogy | |

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Basic Applications | |

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Important Things to Know about Diodes | |

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Zener Diodes | |

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Zener Diode Water Analogy | |

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Basic Applications for Zener Diodes | |

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Transistors | |

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Introduction to Transistors | |

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Bipolar Transistors | |

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Junction Field-Effect Transistors | |

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Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors | |

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Unijunction Transistors | |

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Thyristors | |

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Introduction | |

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Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers | |

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Silicon-Controlled Switches | |

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Triacs | |

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Four-Layer Diodes and Diacs | |

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Optoelectronics | |

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A Little Lecture on Photons | |

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Lamps | |

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Light-Emitting Diodes | |

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How an LED Works | |

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Kinds of LEDs | |

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Technical Stuff about LEDs | |

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Basic LED Operations | |

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Photoresistors | |

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How a Photoresistor Works | |

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Technical Stuff | |

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Applications | |

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Photodiodes | |

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How a Photodiode Works | |

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Basic Operations | |

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Kinds of Photodiodes | |

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Solar Cells | |

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Basic Operations | |

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Phototransistors | |

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How a Phototransistor Works | |

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Basic Configurations | |

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Kinds of Phototransistors | |

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Technical Stuff | |

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Applications | |

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Photothyristors | |

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How LASCRs Work | |

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Basic Operation | |

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Optoisolators | |

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Integrated Optoisolators | |

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Applications | |

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Integrated Circuits | |

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IC Packages | |

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Some Basic ICs to Get You Started | |

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Operational Amplifiers | |

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Operational Amplifier Water Analogy | |

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How Op Amps Work (The "Cop-Out" Explanation) | |

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Theory | |

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Negative Feedback | |

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Positive Feedback | |

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Real Kinds of Op Amps | |

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Op Amp Specifications | |

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Powering Op Amps | |

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Some Practical Notes | |

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Voltage and Current Offset Compensation | |

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Frequency Compensation | |

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Comparators | |

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Comparators with Hysteresis | |

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Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis | |

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Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis | |

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Using Single-Supply Comparators | |

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Window Comparator | |

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Voltage-Level Indicator | |

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Applications | |

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Filters | |

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Things to Know before You Start Designing Filters | |

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Basic Filters | |

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Passive Low-Pass Filter Design | |

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A Note on Filter Types | |

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Passive High-Pass Filter Design | |

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Passive Bandpass Filter Design | |

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Passive Notch Filter Design | |

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Active Filter Design | |

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Active Low-Pass Filter Example | |

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Active High-Pass Filter Example | |

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Active Bandpass Filters | |

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Active Notch Filters | |

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Integrated Filter Circuits | |

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Oscillators and Timers | |

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RC Relaxation Oscillators | |

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The 555 Timer IC | |

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How a 555 Works (Astable Operation) | |

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Basic Astable Operation | |

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How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation) | |

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Basic Monostable Operation | |

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Some Important Notes about 555 Timers | |

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Simple 555 Applications | |

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Voltage-Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) | |

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Wien-Bridge and Twin-T Oscillators | |

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LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators) | |

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Crystal Oscillators | |

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Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies | |

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Voltage-Regulator ICs | |

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Fixed Regulator ICs | |

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Adjustable Regulator ICs | |

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Regulator Specifications | |

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A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications | |

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The Transformer | |

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Rectifier Packages | |

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A Few Simple Power Supplies | |

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Technical Points about Ripple Reduction | |

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Loose Ends | |

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Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers) | |

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Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages | |

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Power Supply Construction | |

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Audio Electronics | |

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A Little Lecture on Sound | |

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Microphones | |

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Microphone Specifications | |

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Audio Amplifiers | |

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Preamplifiers | |

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Mixer Circuits | |

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A Note on Impedance Matching | |

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Speakers | |

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Crossover Networks | |

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Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers | |

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Audible-Signal Devices | |

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Miscellaneous Audio Circuits | |

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Digital Electronics | |

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The Basics of Digital Electronics | |

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Digital Logic States | |

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Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics | |

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Clock Timing and Parallel versus Serial Transmission | |

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Logic Gates | |

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Multiple-Input Logic Gates | |

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Digital Logic Gate ICs | |

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Applications for a Single Logic Gate | |

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Combinational Logic | |

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Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps) | |

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Combinational Devices | |

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Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and Bilateral Switches | |

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Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders | |

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Encoders and Code Converters | |

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Binary Adders | |

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Binary Adder/Subtractor | |

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Arithmetic/Logic Units (ALUs) | |

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Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs | |

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Parity Generator/Checker | |

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A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend toward Microcontroller Control | |

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Logic Families | |

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TTL Family of ICs | |

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CMOS Family of ICs | |

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Input/Output Voltages and Noise Margins | |

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Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays | |

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A Detailed Look at the Various TTL and CMOS Subfamilies | |

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A Look at a Few Other Logic Series | |

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Logic Gates with Open-Collector Outputs | |

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Schmitt-Triggered Gates | |

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Interfacing Logic Families | |

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Powering and Testing Logic ICs and General Rules of Thumb | |

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Powering Logic ICs | |

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Power Supply Decoupling | |

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Unused Inputs | |

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Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers | |

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Sequential Logic | |

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SR Flip-Flops | |

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SR Flip-Flop (Latch) ICs | |

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D Flip-Flops | |

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A Few Simple D-Type Flip-Flop Applications | |

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Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops | |

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JK Flip-Flops | |

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Applications for JK Flip-Flops | |

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Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops | |

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Digital Clock Generator and Single-Pulse Generators | |

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Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits | |

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More on Switch Debouncers | |

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Pullup and Pulldown Resistors | |

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Counter ICs | |

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Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs | |

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Synchronous Counter ICs | |

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A Note on Counters with Displays | |

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Shift Registers | |

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Serial-In/Serial-Out Shifter Registers | |

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Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers | |

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Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Register | |

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Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer) | |

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Johnson Shift Counter | |

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Shift Register ICs | |

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Simple Shift Register Applications | |

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Three-State Buffers, Latches, and Transceivers | |

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Three-State Octal Buffers | |

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Three-State Octal Latches and Flip-Flops | |

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Transceivers | |

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Additional Digital Topics | |

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DC Motors, RC Servos, and Stepper Motors | |

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DC Continuous Motors | |

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Speed Control of DC Motors | |

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Directional Control of DC Motors | |

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RC Servos | |

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Stepper Motors | |

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Kinds of Stepper Motors | |

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Driving Stepper Motors | |

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Controlling the Driver with a Translator | |

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A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors | |

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Hands-on Electronics | |

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Safety | |

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Some Safety Tips | |

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Damaging Components with Electrostatic Discharge | |

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Handling Precautions | |

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Constructing Circuits | |

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Drawing a Circuit Schematic | |

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A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs | |

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Making a Prototype of Your Circuit | |

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The Final Circuit | |

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A Note about Board Layout | |

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Special Pieces of Hardware Used in Circuit Construction | |

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Soldering | |

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Desoldering | |

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Enclosing the Circuit | |

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Useful Items to Keep Handy | |

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Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build | |

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Multimeters | |

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Basic Operation | |

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How Analog VOMs Work | |

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How Digital Multimeters Work | |

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A Note on Measurement Errors | |

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Oscilloscopes | |

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How Scopes Work | |

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Interior Circuity of a Scope | |

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Aiming the Beam | |

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Scope Applications | |

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What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do | |

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Measuring Things with Scopes | |

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Scope Applications | |

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Appendices | |

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Power Distribution and Home Wiring | |

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Power Distribution | |

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A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity | |

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Home Wiring | |

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Electricity in Other Countries | |

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Electronic Symbols | |

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Useful Facts and Formulas | |

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Greek Alphabet | |

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Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes | |

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Linear Functions (y = mx + b) | |

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Quadratic Equation (y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c) | |

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Exponents and Logarithms | |

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Trigonometry | |

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Complex Numbers | |

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Differential Calculus | |

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Finding Components | |

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A Note on Injection Molding and Patents | |

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History of Electronics Timeline | |

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Component Data, List of Logic ICs, Foreign Semiconductor Codes | |

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Standard Resistance Values for 5% Carbon-Film Resistors | |

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Selection of Diodes | |

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Selection of Zener Diodes | |

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General Purpose Bipolar Transistors | |

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General Purpose Power Bipolar Transistors | |

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Selection of RF Transistors | |

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Selection of Small-Signal JFETs | |

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Selection of Power FETs | |

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Selection of Op Amps | |

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Common 4000 Series Logic ICs | |

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Common 7000 Series Logic ICs | |

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Semiconductor Codes | |

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Analog/Digital Interfacing | |

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Triggering Simple Logic Responses from Analog Signals | |

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Using Logic to Drive External Loads | |

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Analog Switches | |

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Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer | |

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Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion | |

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Analog-to-Digital Converters | |

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Displays | |

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LED Displays | |

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Alphanumeric LED Displays | |

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Liquid-Crystal Displays | |

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Memory Devices | |

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Read-Only Memories (ROMs) | |

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Simple ROM Made Using Diodes | |

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Terms Used to Describe Memory Size and Organization | |

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Simple Programmable ROM | |

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Various Kinds of ROM Devices | |

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Random-Access Memories (RAMs) | |

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers | |

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Introduction to Microprocessors | |

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Microcontrollers | |

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Index | |