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    GPS/GNSS Antennas

    ISBN-10: 1596931507
    ISBN-13: 9781596931503
    Edition: 2013
    Description: Introduction. GNSS System Description. Antenna Characteristics. GNSS Antenna Requirements. GNSS Antenna Designs. Multiband GNSS Antennas. Ground Plane, Aircraft Fuselage and Other Platform and Environmental Effects on GPS Antennas. Measurement of  More...
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    Copyright Year: 2013
    Publisher: Artech House
    Binding: Hardcover
    Pages: 404
    Size: 7.50" wide x 10.50" long x 1.00" tall
    Weight: 1.892
    Language: English

    Introduction. GNSS System Description. Antenna Characteristics. GNSS Antenna Requirements. GNSS Antenna Designs. Multiband GNSS Antennas. Ground Plane, Aircraft Fuselage and Other Platform and Environmental Effects on GPS Antennas. Measurement of GNSS Antenna Characteristics. Antennas and Site Considerations for Precise Applications. Cosite Interference Issues for GPS Antennas on Aircraft and Mitigation Techniques. Adaptive Antenna Arrays and Anti-Jam Signal Processing Techniques--

    Preface
    Introduction to GNSS Antenna Performance Parameters
    Role of an Antenna in GNSS and its Key Requirements
    Summary of Satellite Navigation Systems
    GNSS
    Regional Satellite Navigation Systems
    Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems
    Polarization and Radiation Pattern of a GNSS Antenna
    Polarization Efficiency and Polarization Mismatch Loss
    Effect of Axial Ratio on the Reception of Satellite Signals by the Receiving Antenna
    Effect of Axial Ratio of a GNSS Antenna on Reception of Different Types of Multipath Signals
    Directivity and Gain of a GNSS Antenna
    RHCP Gain of a GNSS Antenna for an Optimum Radiation Pattern Denned by Its Low Elevation Masking Angle
    Relationship between Beamwidth, Aperture Size, and Directive Gain of a GNSS Antenna
    Effect of Minimum Gain Beamwidth and Antenna Pattern Contour on GDOP
    Phase Center of a GNSS Antenna
    Carrier Phase Windup
    Group Delay Variation in GNSS Antennas
    Requirements for Group Delay Variation with Frequency
    Group Delay Variation with Aspect Angle
    Propagation and Multipath Errors in GNSS Measurements
    Antenna-Induced Errors in GNSS Measurements
    Group Delay Error
    Phase Center Error
    Carrier Phase Windup Error
    Differencing Techniques for Removal of Bias Errors in GNSS Measurements
    Differencing of GPS Data for Removal of Antenna-Induced Carrier Phase Errors
    Differential GPS and RTK Measurements
    Techniques for Removal and Estimation of Carrier Phase Windup Errors Caused by a Rotating Antenna
    The Susceptibility of a Commercial GPS C/A Code Receiver to Interference and Jamming
    LightSquared Transmissions
    Civil GPS Jammers
    Architecture of a GNSS Receiver
    Software Denned Radio (SDR)
    Effects of Interference and Jamming on Tracking Loop Thresholds of a GPS Receiver
    Carrier to Noise Ratio of an Antenna and Receiver Front End at "Masking Elevation" of 5 in the GPS and Galileo Frequency Bands for Quiescent Conditions (Absence of Interference or Jamming)
    Effective Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in the Presence of Interference or Jamming
    Effects of Jamming or Interference on a GPS Commercial C/A Code Receiver
    References
    FRPAs and High-Gain Directional Antennas
    Categories of GNSS Antennas
    FRPA
    Microstrip Antennas
    Selection of the Dielectric Substrate for Microstrip Antennas
    Effects of Surface Waves on Microstrip GNSS Antennas
    Design of Dual-Probe-Fed RHCP Single-Band Microstrip GNSS Antenna
    A Parametric Study of a Single-Band RHCP Square-Shaped Microstrip Antenna
    GNSS Dual-Band Stacked Microstrip Patch Antennas
    Feed Techniques for Generating RHCP in GNSS Microstrip Antennas
    Circular RHCP Microstrip Antenna
    Annular Ring RHCP GNSS Microstrip Antenna
    Mutual Coupling Effects in GNSS Microstrip Antenna
    Phase and Group Delays in GNSS Microstrip Antennas
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Microstrip Antennas for GNSS Applications
    Quadrifilar Helix Antenna
    Self-Phasing QHA
    Externally Phased QHA
    A Summary of the Advantages and Disadvantages of QHAs for GNSS
    Hexafilar Slot Antenna for GPS
    Planar and Drooping Bow-Tie Turnstile Antennas for GNSS
    End-Fire Array of Turnstile Antennas for Multipath Limitation
    Directional GNSS Antennas
    Helical Antennas
    Helibowl Multipath Limiting Antenna
    Hemispherical Helix Antenna and Its Use in a GPS Beamforming Array
    High-Gain Reflector Antennas for Monitoring GNSS Signals
    Beamforming Antenna Arrays
    References
    Multiband, Handset, and Active GNSS Antennas
    Introduction
    Multiband GNSS Antennas
    Current and New Satellite Navigations Systems
    Advantages Offered by Multiple GNSS
    Current Technology for Multiband GNSS Antennas
    Performance Requirements for Geodetic-Grade Multiband GNSS Antennas
    Phase Center Stability Requirements and Calibration of Multiband GNSS Antennas
    Multipath Rejection Ratio and FBR
    Size and Weight Requirements for Rover Antennas Used in DGPS and RTK
    Geodetic-Grade Multiband GNSS Antennas Using New Ground Plane Technology
    Wideband 2D GNSS Cutoff and Noncutoff Corrugated Ground Planes
    NovAtel GNSS-750 and Leica AR25 Wideband GNSS Antenna with Hemispherical Choke-Ring Ground Plane
    Trimble's Zephyr Geodetic 2 GNSS Antenna with Resistivity Tapered Ground Plane
    Wideband and Low-Profile GNSS Antenna on an AMC/EBG Ground Plane
    GNSS Geodetic-Grade Antennas Based on Spiral Antenna Technology
    Introduction to the Design of Spiral Antennas
    Roke Manor's GNSS Multiband Cavity-Backed Archimedean Four-Arm Spiral Antenna with a Special Ground Plane
    Ultrawideband GNSS Antenna Based on SMM Technology by WEO
    NovAtel's GPS-704X Wideband GNSS Pinwheel Antenna
    Wideband Conical Spiral Antenna for GPS and Galileo
    Microstrip and Other Wideband Antennas Designs for GNSS
    Wideband GNSS Microstrip Antenna Covering 1.164 to 1.610 GHz
    GNSS Antennas for Handset
    Techniques for Locating Wireless Devices
    Fundamentals of A-GPS
    Design of Handset Antennas: Requirements and Technical Challenges
    Size, Appearance, Cost, Weight, and Functionality
    Influence of Receiver Chassis on Bandwidth of Cell Phone Antennas
    Polarization and Radiation Pattern Requirements of GPS Cell Phone Antennas
    Isolation Techniques to Mitigate EMI/EMC Effects on GPS Antennas in Cell Phones
    User Effects on Handset Antennas
    Representative GPS Antenna Designs Used in Handsets
    Dielectric Chip GPS Handset Antennas Using Ceramic and LTCC Substrates
    Basic PLFA and Design Variations of a PLFA
    Isolated Magnetic Dipole for GPS Handsets by Ethertronics
    Coplanar Balanced Dipole Antenna for Handsets by Antenova Ltd.
    Miniaturized Ceramic Loaded QHA for Handsets
    Active GNSS Antennas and the Use of the G/T Ratio as Its Performance Metric
    G/T Measurement of an Active GNSS Antenna
    Technique for G/T Measurement of Active GPS Antennas
    References
    Adaptive GPS Antennas
    Introduction
    Two-Element Adaptive Array
    Theory of Operation
    Effect of Bandwidth and Gain for Ideal Antennas
    Effect of Dispersive Errors (Channel Mismatch)
    Effect of Multipath
    Space-Time Adaptive Array
    Introduction
    Calculating the Adaptive Weights
    Frequency-Angle Response
    Covariance Matrix Estimate
    Dual-Polarized Antenna Array
    Performance Measures
    Some Traditional Measures
    System Performance Measures
    Spatial Adaptive Processor
    Direction Finding
    Array Phase Center
    Typical Results
    Effects of Temporal Taps
    Effects of Temporal Taps for Different Types of Jammers
    Effects of Jammer Spacing on Satellite Availability
    Maximum Number of Jammers to Null
    Frequency-Agile Jammers and Stale Weights
    Bibliography
    Endnotes
    Ground Plane, Aircraft Fuselage, and Other Platform Effects on GPS Antennas
    Introduction
    Microstrip Antenna on a Planar Ground Plane
    Planar Ground Plane Effects
    Mitigation of Ground Plane Effects on Performance of GPS Antennas
    Choke-Ring Ground Plane
    EBG Ground Plane
    Rolled Edge Ground Plane
    Resistivity Tapered Ground Plane
    Radiation Patterns of Aircraft Mounted GPS Microstrip Antennas and Verification Through Scale Model Testing
    Scale Model Investigations on a GPS Antenna on a Beechcraft 1900C Aircraft
    Validation of the Aircraft Newair Code for Predicting Antenna Patterns of Fuselage-Mounted GPS Patch Antennas
    Newair Analysis of GPS Antenna on a Boeing 737 Aircraft
    Radiation Pattern Analysis of a GPS Antenna on an Automobile
    Body Interaction with a Handheld GPS Antenna
    References
    Measurement of the Characteristics of GNSS Antennas
    Introduction
    Radiation Pattern Measurements of GNSS Antennas
    Near-Field and Far-Field Regions of an Antenna
    Indoor Far-Field Antenna Test Ranges
    CATR
    NF-FF Antenna Test Ranges
    Radiation Pattern Cuts
    Measurement of Axial Ratio of the RHCP GNSS Antenna
    Gain Measurement of a GNSS Antenna
    Two-Antenna Gain Transfer Method
    Three-Antennas Absolute Gain Measurement Method
    Near-Field Spherical Scanning Techniques for Measuring Gain
    Measurement of the Bandwidth of GNSS Antennas
    Measurement of PCO and PCV of GNSS Receiver Antennas
    Microwave Anechoic Chamber Method of Antenna PCV and PCO Calibration
    Relative Antenna Calibration by Comparison to a Reference Antenna
    Absolute Robot-Based Antenna Calibration
    Comparison of the Three Calibration Techniques for Determining PCO and PCV
    Automated Absolute Field Calibration of the PCV and PCO of a Satellite Transmit Antenna Using a Robot
    Group Delay Variation in GNSS Antennas and Its Measurement
    Requirements for Group Delay Variation with Frequency
    Group Delay Variation with Aspect Angle
    Measurement Techniques for Calibrating Group Delay Variation with Frequency and Aspect Angle
    References
    Antennas and Site Considerations for Precise Applications
    Introduction
    Antenna and Site Dependence
    Multipath Effects
    Monument Effects
    Ground Plane Effects
    Radome Effects
    Measurements and Ionospheric Modeling
    Phase Center Measurements
    Tracking Performance Measurements
    Perfect Antenna Pattern and Method of Realization
    Multipath-Limiting Antennas
    PCV
    Modeling and Measurement Methods of PCV
    Group Delay Variation Effects
    Methods of Improvement for Antenna Performance
    Design Stage Improvement for Antenna Performance
    Manufacturing Stage Improvement for Antenna Performance
    Field Installation Stage Improvement for Antenna Performance
    References
    About the Authors
    Index

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