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    Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems

    ISBN-10: 0124087507
    ISBN-13: 9780124087507
    Author(s): Timothy R. Corle, Gordon S. Kino
    Description: This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The book concentrates mainly on two instruments: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference  More...
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    List Price: $150.00
    Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
    Binding: Hardcover
    Pages: 335
    Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.80" tall
    Weight: 1.474
    Language: English

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The book concentrates mainly on two instruments: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference Microscope (OIM). A comprehensive discussion of the theory and design of the Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) is also given. the text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.

    Preface
    Introduction
    Confocal and Interferometric Microscopy
    The Standard Optical Microscope
    Principle of Operation
    The Point Spread Function
    Coherent and Incoherent Illumination
    The Coherent Transfer Function, Line Spread Function, and Spatial Frequencies
    The Optical Transfer Function
    The Rayleigh and Sparrow Two-Point Definitions
    Brightness of the Image
    Imaging Techniques with the Standard Optical Microscope
    The Confocal Microscope
    Principle of Operation
    Scanning
    Depth Response
    The Point Spread Function and Two-Point Resolution
    History of the CSOM
    Optical Interference Microscopes
    Principle of Operation
    Signal Processing Techniques
    Depth and Transverse Resolution
    Comparison of Scanning Optical Microscopes with Other Types of Scanning Microscopes
    References
    Instruments
    Introduction
    The Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope
    The Illumination Source
    The Objective Lens
    The Scanning Stage
    The Intermediate Optics
    The Pinhole
    The Detector and Electronics
    Beam Scanning Techniques
    Commercial Examples
    Fiber-Optic Scanning Microscopes
    Nipkow Disk Scanning Microscopes
    One-Sided and Two-Sided Designs
    The Nipkow Disk
    Illumination of the Disk
    The Tilted Disk and Optical Isolator
    The Field Lens, Tube Lens, and Objective Lens
    The Imaging Path
    Commercial Examples
    Slit Microscopes
    Ophthalmologic Slit Microscopes
    Bilateral Scanning Slit Microscopes
    Hybrid Slit Microscopes
    Confocal Transmission Microscopes
    Alternative Imaging Configurations
    Interference Microscopes
    Interference CSOMs
    The Michelson Interference Microscope
    The Linnik Interference Microscope
    The Mirau Interference Microscope
    The Tolanski Interference Microscope
    Near-Field Microscopy
    The Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope
    Applications of the NSOM
    The Solid Immersion Microscope
    Conclusion
    References
    Depth and Transverse Resolution
    Introduction
    Depth Response of the Confocal Microscope with Infinitesimal Pinholes and Slits
    Scalar Theory for a Plane Reflector
    Scalar Theory for Depth Response of a Point Reflector
    Scalar Theory for Fluorescent Reflectors
    Scalar Theory for Confocal Slit Microscopes
    The Effect of Sample and Lens Aberrations on the Depth Response
    Depth Response of the Confocal Microscope with Finite-Sized Pinholes
    Approximate Theory for Optimum Pinhole Size
    Approximate Theory for the Range Resolution vs. Pinhole Size
    Exact Theory for the Range Resolution vs. Pinhole Size
    Transverse Response of the Confocal Microscope
    Transverse Response for Infinitesimal Pinholes
    Two-Point Resolution
    Edge and Line Response
    The Effect of Finite Pinhole Size on the Transverse Resolution
    Depth and Transverse Resolution of the Interferometric Microscope
    Scalar Theory for the Depth Response with a Plane Reflector
    Transverse Resolution
    The Effect of the Thin-Film Beamsplitter and Mirror Support of the MCM on Signal Levels, Range, and Transverse Resolution
    The Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM)
    Attenuation in a Tapered Rod or Fiber
    The Fields outside the Pinhole
    The Solid Immersion Microscope (SIM)
    The Transverse and Longitudinal Magnifications of the SIL
    The Depth Response of the SIM
    The Transverse Response of the SIM
    Conclusion
    References
    Phase Imaging
    Introduction
    Phase-Contrast Imaging in Conventional Microscopes
    Phase-Contrast Imaging in the CSOM
    Phase Imaging with an Interferometer
    Electro-optic Phase Imaging
    The ac Zernike Technique
    Acousto-optic Phase Imaging
    Differential Interference Contrast Imaging
    The Basic Theory of Nomarski Imaging
    Imaging Modes of a DIC Microscope
    Polarization-Shifted DIC Imaging
    Split Detector DIC Imaging
    Differential Probe Beam DIC Imaging
    Differential Imaging with an AO Modulator
    Differential Imaging with an Optical Fiber CSOM
    Phase Imaging with an Interference Microscope
    The Integrating Bucket Technique
    The Fourier Transform Technique
    Conclusion
    References
    Applications
    Introduction
    Semiconductor Metrology
    Microlithography Measurements
    Precision, Linearity, and Accuracy in Semiconductor Metrology
    Critical Dimension Measurements
    Experimental Results
    Polarization-Enhanced Imaging of Dense Arrays
    Calibration
    Overlay Misregistration Measurements
    Film Thickness Measurements
    CARIS and VAMFO
    Film Thickness Measurements with the Mirau Interference Microscope
    Biological Imaging
    Brightfield and Phase Imaging
    Fluorescence Imaging
    Two-Wavelength and Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging
    Conclusion
    References
    Vector Field Theory for Depth and Transverse Resolution of a CSOM
    The Depth Response
    Transverse Response
    References
    Index

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