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Technology of Integrated Circuits

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ISBN-10: 3540661999

ISBN-13: 9783540661993

Edition: 2000

Authors: D. Widmann, H. Mader, H. Friedrich

List price: $219.99
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Book details

List price: $219.99
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg
Publication date: 7/6/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 342
Size: 6.10" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 3.344
Language: English

List of Symbols
Key to the different layers in integrated circuits
Basic principles of integrated circuits technology
Film technology
Film production processes
The CVD process
Thermal oxidation
Vapour phase deposition
Spin coating
Film production by ion implantation
Film production using wafer-bonding and back-etching
Annealing techniques
The monocrystalline silicon wafer
Geometry and crystallography of silicon wafers
Doping of silicon wafers
Monocrystalline silicon growing techniques
Epitaxial layers
Uses for epitaxial layers
Diffusion of doping atoms from the substrate into the epitaxial layer
Thermal SiO<sub>2</sub> layers
Uses of thermal SiO<sub>2</sub> layers
The LOCOS technique
Properties of thin thermal SiO<sub>2</sub> films
Deposited SiO<sub>2</sub> films
Creating deposited SiO<sub>2</sub> films
Applications of deposited SiO<sub>2</sub> films
Spacer technology
Trench isolation
SiO<sub>2</sub> isolation films for multi-level metallization
Phosphorus glass films
Producing phosphorus glass films
Thermal phosphorus glass
Silicon nitride films
Producing silicon nitride films
Nitride films as an oxidation barrier
Nitride films as a capacitor dielectric
Using nitride films for passivation
Polysilicon films
Producing polysilicon films
Grain structure of polysilicon films
Conductivity of polysilicon films
Uses of polysilicon films
Silicide films
Producing silicide Films
Polycide films
Silication of source/drain regions
Refractory metal films
Aluminium films
Producing aluminium films
Crystal structure ofaluminium films
Electromigration in aluminium interconnections
Aluminium-silicon contacts
Aluminium-aluminium contacts
Organic films
Spin-on glass films
Polyimide films
Linewidth dimension, placement errors and defects
Photoresist films
Formation of photoresist patterns
Light intensity variation in the photoresist
Special photoresist techniques
Optical exposure techniques
Resolution capability ofoptical exposure techniques .
Alignment accuracy of optical exposure equipment
Defects occurring in optical lithography
X-ray lithography
Wavelength region for X-ray lithography
X-ray resists
X-ray sources
X-ray masks
Alignment procedure for X-ray lithography
Radiation damage in X-ray lithography
Opportunities for Y-ray lithography
Electron lithography
Electron resists
Resolution capability of electron lithography
Electron beam pattern generators
Electron projection equipment
Alignment techniques in electron lithography
Radiation damage in electron lithography
Ion lithography
Ion resists
Ion beam writing
Ion beam projection
Resolution capability ofion lithography
Pattern generation without using lithography
Etching technology
Wet etching
Wet chemical etching
Chemical-mechanical polishing
Dry etching
Physical dry etching
Chemical dry etching
Physical-chemical dry etching
Chemical etching reactions
Etching gases
Process optimization
Endpoint detection
Dry etch processes
Dry etching of silicon nitride
Dry etching of polysilicon
Dry etching ofmonocrystalline silicon
Dry etching ofmetal silicides and refractory metals
Dry etching of silicon dioxide
Dry etching ofaluminium
Dry etching ofpolymers
Doping technology
Thermal doping
Doping by ion implantation
Ion implantation machines
Implanted doping profiles
Activation and diffusion of dopant atoms
Activating implanted dopant atoms
Intrinsic diffusion of dopant atoms
Diffusion for high concentrations of dopant atoms
Oxidation enhanced diffusion
Diffusion of dopant atoms at interfaces
Diffusion of dopant atoms in films
Sheet resistance of doped layers
Diffusion at the edge of doped regions
Diffusion of non-doping materials
Cleaning technology
Contaminants and their effect
Clean rooms, clean materials and clean processes
Clean rooms
Clean materials
Clean processing
Wafer cleaning
Process integration
The various MOS and bipolar technologies
Active components in integrated circuits
Comparsion of MOS and bipolar technologies
Passive components in integrated circuits
Technology architecture
Architecture of MOS technology
Architecture of bipolar and BICMOS technologies
Transistors in integrated circuits
Design of MOS transistors and their isolation
Design of DMOS transistors
Design of bipolar transistors and their isolation
Memory cells
Design of static memory cells
Design of dynamic memory cells
Design of non-volatile memory cells
Multilayer metallization
Planarization of surfaces in integrated circuits
Contacts in integrated circuits
Metallization in integrated ciruits
Passivation of integrated circuits
Detailed process sequence ofselected technologies
Digital CMOS process
BICMOS process
Microwave bipolar process
DRAM process
Subject Index