Space Physics An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres

ISBN-10: 3540206175

ISBN-13: 9783540206170

Edition: 3rd 2004

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Description:

Space is a large natural plasma laboratory offering a wealth of phenomena which range from the simple to the highly complex and non-linear. This book begins with an introduction to basic principles such as single-particle motion, magnetohydrodynamics and plasma waves. It incorporates these concepts into an analysis of complex phenomena including the sun and solar activity, shocks, interplanetary space and magnetospheres, and finally the interaction between these entities in solar-terrestrial relationships. In all these subfields of space research, special attention is paid to energetic particles. The book concludes with a brief chapter on instrumentation. In this third edition, numerous examples have been added to illustrate the basic concepts and aid the reader in applying such concepts to real world physics. In addition, recent observations (ACE, TRACE, Wind) have been included. The chapter on solar-terrestrial relationships has been expanded to introduce the current research topic of Space Weather.
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Book details

List price: $139.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 3/5/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 482
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.178
Language: English

Introduction
Neutral Gases and Plasmas
Plasmas in Space
A Brief History of Space Research
Exercises and Problems
Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fields
Electromagnetic Fields
Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum
Transformation of Field Equations
Generalized Ohm's Law
Energy Equation of the Electromagnetic Field
Particle Motion in Electromagnetic Fields
Lorentz Force and Gyration
Drifts of Particles in Electromagnetic Fields
The Concept of the Guiding Center
Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields: Ex B Drift
Magnetic and Gravitational Fields
Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields
Curvature Drift
Drifts Combined with Changes in Particle Energy
Drift Currents in Plasmas
Adiabatic Invariants
First Adiabatic Invariant: The Magnetic Moment
Magnetic Mirrors and Bottles
Second Adiabatic Invariant: Longitudinal Invariant
Third Adiabatic Invariant: Flux Invariant
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Magnetohydrodynamics
From Hydrodynamics to Magnetohydrodynamics
Partial and Convective Derivatives
Equation of Motion or Momentum Balance
Equation of Continuity
Equation of State
Basic Equations of MHD
Two-Fluid Description
Magnetohydrostatics
Magnetic Pressure
Magnetic Tension
Magnetohydrokinematics
Frozen-in Magnetic Fields
Deformation and Dissipation of Fields
Reconnection
The Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamo
Debye Shielding
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Plasma Waves
What is a Wave?
Magnetohydrodynamic Waves
Linearization of the Equations: Perturbation Theory.
Alfven Waves
Magneto-Sonic Waves
Electrostatic Waves in Non-Magnetic Plasmas
Plasma Oscillations
Electron Plasma Waves (Langmuir Waves)
Ion-Acoustic Waves (Ion Waves)
Electrostatic Waves in Magnetized Plasmas
Electron Oscillations Perpendicular to B (Upper Hybrid Frequency)
Electrostatic Ion Waves Perpendicular to B (Ion Cyclotron Waves)
pLower Hybrid Frequency
Electromagnetic Waves in Non-Magnetized Plasmas
Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Plasmas
Electromagnetic Waves Perpendicular to BQ
Waves Parallel to the Magnetic Field: Whistler (R-Waves) and L-Waves
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Kinetic Theory
The Distribution Function
Phase Space and Distribution Function
Maxwell's Velocity Distribution
Other Distributions
Distribution Function and Measured Quantities
Equations of Kinetic Theory
The Boltzmann Equation
The Vlasov Equation
The Fokker-Planck Equation
Collisions
Collisions Between Neutrals
Collisions Between Charged Particles
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Sun and Solar Wind: Plasmas in the Heliosphere
The Sun
Nuclear Fusion
Structure of the Sun
The Solar Atmosphere
The Coronal Magnetic Field
The Solar Wind
Properties
Solar Wind Models
Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration
The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
Spiral Structure
Sector Structure
The Ballerina Model
Corotating Interaction Regions
Plasma Waves in Interplanetary Space
Power-Density Spectrum
Waves or Turbulence?
The Three-Dimensional Heliosphere
The Active Sun
The Solar Cycle
A Simple Model of the Solar Cycle
The Heliosphere During the Solar Cycle
Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections
Electromagnetic Radiation
Classes of Flares
Coronal Mass Ejections
Coronal Mass Ejections, Flares, and Coronal Shocks
Models of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
Models of Flares
Magnetic Clouds: CMEs in Interplanetary Space
Interplanetary Shocks
Shock
Information, Dissipation, and Non-Linearity
The Shock's Rest Frame
Collisionless Shock Waves
Shock Conservation Laws
Jump Conditions and Discontinuities
Shock Geometry
Fast and Slow Shocks
The Coplanarity Theorem
The Shock Normal Direction
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Energetic Particles in the Heliosphere
Particle Populations in the Heliosphere
Solar Energetic Particles and Classes of Flares
Interplanetary Transport - Theoretical Background
Spatial Diffusion
Pitch Angle Diffusion
Diffusion in Momentum Space
Wave-Particle Interactions
Electromagnetic Waves
Transport Equations
Interplanetary Propagation - Observations
Fits with a Transport Equation
Analysis of Magnetic Field Fluctuations
Comparison Between Both Approaches
Particle Acceleration at Shocks - Theory
Shock Drift Acceleration (SDA)
Diffusive Shock Acceleration
Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Self-Generated Turbulence
Stochastic Acceleration
The Shock as a Non-Linear System
Summary Shock Acceleration
Particles at Shocks in Interplanetary Space
Low-Energy Particles (Tens of keV) at Traveling Shocks
High-Energetic Particles (MeVs) at Traveling Shocks
Particles at Planetary Bow Shocks
Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs)
Variations
Modulation Models
Summary
Exercises and Problems
The Terrestrial Magnetosphere
The Geomagnetic Field
Description of the Geomagnetic Field
Variability of the Internal Field
The Terrestrial Dynamo
Topology of the Magnetosphere
Overview
The Magnetopause
Polar Cusps
The Tail and the Polar Caps
Magnetosheath and Bow Shock
Plasmas and Currents in the Magnetosphere
The Atmosphere
The Ionosphere
Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling
The Plasmasphere
The Geosphere
The Outer Magnetosphere
The Open Magnetosphere
Convection of Plasma Into the Magnetosphere
Flux Transfer Events
Release of Accumulated Matter: Substorms
Geomagnetic Disturbances
Daily Variations
Geomagnetic Indices
Geomagnetic Pulsations
Geomagnetic Storms
Geomagnetic Activity on Longer Time Scales
Aurorae
Historical Excursion
Beginning of the Scientific Analysis
Modern Interpretation
Electron Acceleration
Excitation of the Atmosphere
Shape and Local Time
Energetic Particles in the Magnetosphere
The Radiation Belts
Galactic Cosmic Rays - St0rmer Orbits
Solar Energetic Particles - Polar Cap Absorption
Magnetospheric Modeling
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Planetary Magnetospheres
The Planets
Planets with a Magnetic Field
Mercury
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Planets Without a Magnetic Field
Comparison of Planetary Magnetospheres
Structures of Planetary Magnetospheres
Sizes
Plasma Sources
Upstream of the Bow Shock: The Foreshocks
Summary
Exercises and Problems
Solar-Terrestrial Relationships
Solar-Terrestrial Relationships: Overview
Responses of the Upper Atmosphere to Solar Variability
Polar Cap Absorptions and Ozone
Thermospheric Circulation
The Solar Cycle, Sector Boundaries, Droughts, and Thunderstorms
Solar Activity, Climate, and Culture
Sun and Weather
Cosmic Rays, Clouds, and Solar Cycle Length
The Technical Environment and Solar Activity
Instrumentation
Field Instruments
The Magnetic Field
Electric Field Measurements
Wave Measurements
Plasma Instruments
Instruments for Dense Plasmas
Instruments for Rarefied Plasmas
Energetic Particle Instruments
Supplementary Ground-Based Observations
Appendix
List of Symbols
Useful Equations in the SI and cgs System
Useful Relations
Vector Calculus
Cylindrical Coordinates
Spherical Coordinates
Useful Numbers
Fundamental Constants
Numbers in Plasmas
References
Index
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