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Description: Research on adolescent psychology has focused mainly on Americans. This dominance is incongruent with adolescent life around the world. Of the world#xE2;#xAC;"s 6.5 billion people, fewer than 5% live in the United States. And, that proportion is shrinking daily. By the year 2050, the world#xE2;#xAC;"s population is projected to surpass 9 billion, and virtually all of the growth will come from non-Western countries. This book paints the picture of adolescent psychology in each of the 5 majorregions of the world: the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. An Introductory chapter ties the book together. As such it provides students with a broad cultural perspective on adolescents#xE2;#xAC;" psychological development and an avenue for gaining a deeper understanding of their own development. Each chapter opens with a map to show where the country is in relation to other countries. In addition, each chapter will contain figures, photos, and charts to illustrate important information, and a list of references and suggested readings. The book will be accompanied by a website that will include multiple choice and essay questions and video material with interviews of adolescents that Jeffrey Arnett will provide for free. The website will also feature a grid that shows instructors which pages/sections to use if they want to assign this book with topically oriented adolescent psychology courses. Each chapter follows the same template making it easier to compare topics among countries: Background - A brief overview of the nation that introduces age distribution, cultural & ethnic groups, economics, political systems, geography, and major historical events. Period of Adolescence#xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Reviews whether or not adolescence is recognized as a life stage and if so, how long it has been recognized as such, its duration and changes in length of adolescence in recent decades, rites of passage and whether or not there is a period of "emerging adulthood" during which young people are more independent of their parents but are not yet committed to adult roles. Beliefs #xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Focuses on the tendency towards individualism or collectivism, how values are taught and if they are changing, and the main religious beliefs and how they are transmitted to adolescents. Gender - Reviews gender role expectations and physical ideals and any gender and body image issues that are especially important in adolescence (i.e. male or female circumcision). The Self#xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Discusses the development of personal and cultural identity, including ethnic identity among immigrants, and how adolescents of the region spend thier time. Family Relationships- Discusses common parenting practices and the typical interactions among family members including extended and "quasi-kin" family members, sources of conflict with parents including generational conflicts, and rates and effects of divorce and remarriage. Friends, Peers, and Youth Culture#xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Reviews the amount of time adolescents spend with peers, restrictions on friendships due to barriers of gender, social class, and ethnic group, typical youth organizations (if any) and the focus of their activity (i.e. sports, social and/or political activities), and whether or not there is a distinct youth culture in the country defined by dress, music, slang, etc. Love and Sexuality#xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Examines dating, cohabitation, marriage, sexual practices and diseases, birth control, pregnancy, parental attitudes toward adolescent sexuality, sex education, and homosexuality. Health Risk Behavior- Discusses the extent of adolescent drug and alcohol use, crime, gang activity, car accidents, suicide, depression, and the main sources of adolescents'' problems. Education #xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Reviews literacy rates, characteristics of and participation rates in secondary schools, gender differences in access to education, and performance on international achievement tests. Work #xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Discusses the amount of work contributed to family, involvement in work versus schooling, common types of adolescent employment and working conditions (e.g., sweatshops, sexual exploitation, slavery), apprenticeships and other job training programs, and unemployment. Media#xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Reviews the amount of media use by adolescents (television, recorded music, computer games, Internet, movies, etc.) and whether or not the media is predominantly indigenous or imported, and the positive and negative influences on adolescents. Politics and Military- Discusses the amount and type of adolescent involvement in politics (voting age, rallies, etc.), the extent of participation in military activities (compulsory service, armed combat, training programs, etc.), and examines volunteer work and community services. Unique Issues#xE2;#xAC;#x1C; Reviews any unique issues especially important to adolescents in that country. This book features 16 updated chapters from the International Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Collectively it tells the story of adolescent psychology in each of the 5 major regions of the world: the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The introductory chapter explains why certain countries were selected and it introduces the common themes found in each chapter. In the first section, The Americas, readers are introduced to life in the United States, Canada, Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua), Argentina, and Chile. The chapter on Argentina, the most European of South American countries, reviews recent economic instability that has made Argentinean adolescents cynical about government and wary of making long-term plans. Chile provides a review of a country that has boomed since becoming a democracy and where young people are at the forefront of social and economic changes. Section 2 on Europe paints a picture of adolescent life in Norway, Germany, Italy and Eastern Europe. These countries were selected for various reasons. Norway has a unique apprenticeship program for adolescents and a large, young immigrant population. Germany is the largest and most economically powerful country in Europe and its reunification continues to reverberate in the lives of young people, especially in economic differences. Italy is of special interest because young people there tend to remain at home through their twenties. Next we travel to Asia --India, China, and Japan. With over one billion people and rapid economic growth, India reflects a nation that is growing in importance in the world economy thereby creating opportunities for young people. Like India, China has over a billion people and is rising economically. However, its oppressive political system raises questions about how much young people may press for political changes in the future. Japan#xE2;#xAC;"s traditions are being challenged by its youth who are much more Westernized than their parents. Section 4reviews adolescent life in Africa, in particular, South Africa, the most prosperous sub-Saharan African country with political stability since the transition to democracy but where the future of young people is jeopardized by the spread of HIV/AIDS. From here we go to Cameroon, one of the few places left in the world where adolescents typically go through formal puberty rituals. The book concludes with a Section on the Middle East. This section examines adolescent psychology in Egypt, where adolescents must grapple with the tensions between modernity and traditional Islam. Another to be determined Middle Eastern country will also be included. This supplementary text is intended for courses in adolescent psychology, lifespan development, and/or cultural (cross-cultural) psychology taught in departments of psychology, human development, and education. Because of its cross-cultural perspective, the book is also expected to be