America's Foreign Policy Toolkit Key Institutions and Processes

ISBN-10: 1608719855

ISBN-13: 9781608719853

Edition: 2013 (Revised)

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How is foreign policy in the United States really crafted? Who does the work? How are the various activites of the many key participants coordinated and controlled? In America’s Foreign Policy Toolkit: Key Institutions and Processes, Charles A. Stevenson identifies for students what the key foreign policy tools are, clarifies which tools are best for which tasks, describes the factors that constrain or push how they’re used, and provides fresh insight into the myriad challenges facing national security decisionmakers. Written in an engaging style with case examples drawn from behind the scenes, Stevenson brings depth and dimension to the sophisticated pathways and instruments of American foreign policy, from the State Department to the intelligence agencies to the Commerce Department and beyond. In this brief text for American foreign policy and national security courses, Stevenson focuses on the institutions and processes of foreign policy, beginning with a look at the historical context and then looking in turn at the tools available to the president, congress, and the shared budgetary tools. The following part, Using the Tools, looks at the diplomatic, economic, military, intelligence, homeland security, and international institutions instruments. Stevenson concludes with chapters that consider the important constraints and limitation of the U.S. toolkit. Each chapter ends with a case study that allows readers to connect the theory of the toolkit with the realities of decisionmaking. Highlights of the text’s coverage include: A sustained analysis of the U.S. Constitution as a response to security threats in the 1780s, providing a strong historical foundation on and springboard for discussion of this basic document in terms of national security powers; Comprehensive coverage of the congressional role overseeing all other policy instruments, showing Congress as an active player in all aspects of foreign policy; Analysis of the full spectrum of agencies and activities involved in foreign economic policy, covering the numerous organizations involved in foreign economic policy, the weak coordinating mechanisms, and the various processes (sanctions, trade, foreign assistance, direct investment) used as policy tools; A consistent framework for analyzing each instrument (authorities, capabilities, personnel, culture, internal factions, and the role of Congress), which makes comparative analyses of U.S. institutions simple and direct; An illuminating overview of the budget process through both the executive and legislative branches, acknowledging the budget process as a shared policy tool, with conflict and feedback, rather than as a linear process; A discussion of homeland security instruments and international organizations used as policy tools, highlighting the relevance of these new and often overlooked instruments; and A survey of recommendations for reform and the difficulties involved, providing possible explanations of foreign policy failures and alternative organizations and processes. This must-have text for courses on American foreign policy will be a crucial reference that students will keep on the shelf long after the last class.
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Book details

List price: $59.00
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: CQ Press
Publication date: 10/2/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 408
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

Dr. Charles A. Stevenson teaches courses in American foreign policy at the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was a longtime professor at the National War College, where he directed the core course on the interagency process for national security policy. He has executive branch experience, including service on the Secretary of State's Policy Planning Staff, and served for 22 years as a Senate staffer on defense and foreign policy. He is the author of a study of the congressional role in major military operations, Congress at War ; a historical survey of U.S. civil-military relations, Warriors and Politicians ; and a comparative analysis of U.S. Secretaries of Defense, SecDef. He was a member of the Project on National Security Reform and headed its working group on Congress. He has an AB and PhD from Harvard.

Tables, Figures, and Boxes
The Purpose of This Book
Organization of the Book
About the Author
Introduction: Tools and Tool Users
U.S. Foreign Policy in Action
How Foreign Policy Is Made
The Foreign Policy Toolkit
How This Book Is Organized
Assembling the Tools
The Framers' Design
America Under the Articles of Confederation
Behind Closed Doors in Philadelphia
The New Framework
The Battles for Ratification
First Congress and First Precedents
Selected Resources
Following the Blueprint
The Washington Administration, 1789-1797
John Adams and the Quasi-War With France, 1797-1801
Republican Government, 1800-1828
The Slavery Factor
James Polk, Master Strategist, 1845-1849
America and the World, 1850-1861
Foreign Policy in the Civil War, 1861-1865
Congressional Dominance in the Gilded Age, 1865-1898
Imperial Ambitions, 1898-1913
Woodrow Wilson's Militant Idealism, 1913-1921
Retrenchment in the Jazz Age, 1920-1939
Franklin D. Roosevelt in Peace and War, 1933-1945
The Cold War and After, 1946-
Selected Resources
The President's Toolkit
Presidential Power
Legal Constraints
Political Constraints
Other Constraints on Presidential Choice
Historical Consensus and Dissensus
Presidential Management Styles
Sources of Information
Creation of the White House-Centered National Security Council System
The National Security Council and Staff
Role of the National Security Adviser
Other White House Operatives
National Security Council System: The Scowcroft Model
National Security Council Culture
The Paper Flow
Crisis Management
Process Matters
Foreign Policy Is a Never-Ending Process
Critiques of the Current National Security Council System
Case Study: Obama's Review of Afghanistan Policy
Selected Resources
Congress's Toolkit
How Congress Acts
The Legal Tool
Substantive Versus Procedural Laws
The Money Tool
The Treaty Tool
The Nomination Tool
Oversight Tools
Informal Tools
Congressional Culture
House Culture
Senate Culture
Committee Cultures and Dynamics
Why Congress Acts That Way
Member Motivations
Public Opinion
Congressional Inputs to the National Security Council System
The Effort to Legislate War Powers
Inconsistency in Practice on War Powers
Tying the President's Hands
Should Politics Stop at Water's Edge?
Case Study: Congress and Cuban Independence, 1898
Case Study: Congress Struggles With Apartheid and South Africa
Selected Resources
Shared Tools of the Budgetary Process
Making Policy by Making Budgets
Evolution of the Budget Process
Role and Culture of the Office of Management and Budget
The Official Budget Process in the Executive Branch
The Official Budget Process in Congress
The Money Committees and Their Cultures
The Usual, Real Budget Process
Playing Games With the Budget Tool
Linking Money to Policy
Contingency Funds
Transfers and Reprogramming
Secret Spending
Causes and Cures for Dysfunction
Case Study: Budget Enforcement Act of 1990
Selected Resources
Using the Tools
The Diplomatic Instrument
The Nature of Diplomacy and the Diplomatic Mission
Growth and Professionalization of the State Department
The Country Team
The Changing Foreign Service
State Department Culture
Representation and Engagement
Analyzing and Reporting
Public Diplomacy
Citizen Services
Other Operations
Policy Making
Bureaucratic Rivalries Among State, Defense, and the National Security Council
Congress and the State Department
Case Study: Building the Gulf War Coalition, 1990
Selected Resources
The Economic Instruments
Carrots and Sticks
A Disorganized Toolkit
The Globalized Economy
Key Institutions
National Economic Council
Federal Reserve
Department of the Treasury
United States Trade Representative
Department of Commerce
Department of State
United States Agency for International Development
Department of Defense
Department of Agriculture
Other Organizations
Key Processes
Foreign Assistance
Financial Flows
Foreign Direct Investment
Case Study: The Korean-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
Selected Resources
The Military Instrument
Nature of the Military Instrument
Growth and Professionalization of the Military
Consolidation, Nuclear Weapons, and Jointness
People in Many Uniforms
The Culture of the Pentagon
Use of the Military Instrument
Engaging With Foreign Governments and Militaries
The 911 Force
Planning and Policy Making
Recurring Tensions
The Pentagon in the Interagency Process
Congress and the Pentagon
Case Study: Planning for the 2003 Iraq Invasion
Selected Resources
The Secret Intelligence Instruments
Secret Tools
The Long History of Secret Programs
Major Institutions
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Central Intelligence Agency
Pentagon Management
Other Intelligence Community Components
Major Processes
What Presidents Want
Congressional Oversight
Selected Resources
The Homeland Security Instruments
A Brief History of United States Homeland Security
Creation of the Homeland Security System
The Defense Mission
Intelligence Collection and Integration Mission
Critical Infrastructure Mission
Cybersecurity Mission
Biological Protection Mission
Border Security and Immigration Missions
Transportation Security Mission
Emergency Preparedness and Response Missions
The Anomaly of the Secret Service
Culture of the Department of Homeland Security
Homeland Security Council
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Homeland Security System
Congress and Homeland Security
International Aspects of Homeland Security
Areas of Presidential Choice
Case Study: U.S.-Mexican Collaboration on Security
Selected Resources
The International Institutions Instrument
The Role of International Institutions
Ad Hoc Versus Institutional Multilateralism
International Institutions
United Nations
Congress and the United Nations
International Atomic Energy Agency
Regional Institutions
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organization of American States
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Economic Institutions
G-8 and G-20
The International Monetary Fund and Other International Financial Institutions
World Trade Organization
International Courts
Major Nonstate Actors
Case Study: Using the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as an Instrument of Foreign Policy in Libya, 2011
Selected Resources
Constraints and Limitations on the U.S. Toolkit
Elephants in the Workshop
Public Opinion
The Elite, Attentive, and Mass Publics
Polling Opinions
Presidential Message and Public Support
The Bully Pulpit and Framing
Shaping the Media
Leaks as a Policy Making Tool
The Media as the Shaper
Shrinking Coverage and Shrinking Audience
Advocacy Groups
Ethnic Identity or Affinity Groups
Impact of Lobbyists and Contributors
Think Tanks
Selected Resources
Missing Tools
Legacy of Reform Proposals
Recommended New Tools
New Organizations and Capabilities
New Processes
New Emphases and Priorities
Impediments to Reform
Entrenched Interests
Genuine Dilemmas
Lack of Resources
Warning Lessons
The Changing Foreign Policy Toolkit
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