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Life on the River The Archaeology of an Early Native American Culture

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ISBN-10: 1597140864

ISBN-13: 9781597140867

Edition: 2008

Authors: William R. Hildebrandt, Tammara Ekness Norton

List price: $13.95
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In this detailed account of an archaeological dig along the banks of the Upper Sacramento River in Northern California, we gain unforgettable glimpses into the village life of a Wintu tribe 175 years ago, including signs of their often contentious interactions with other groups and evidence of the epidemic that nearly destroyed the tribe in 1833.
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Book details

List price: $13.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Heyday
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 120
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.25" tall
Weight: 0.550
Language: English

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
The Distant Pastp. 7
Dating Archaeological Sitesp. 8
Radiocarbon Datingp. 8
Obsidian Hydrationp. 9
Cross-dating Artifact Stylesp. 9
Ancient Cultures of the Upper Sacramento Valley as Seen through the Archaeological Recordp. 11
Borax Lake Pattern (8000-5000 BP)p. 13
Squaw Creek Pattern (5000-3000 BP)p. 14
Whiskeytown Pattern (4000-1500 BP)p. 15
Shasta Pattern (post 1500 BP)p. 17
Changes in Prehistoric Land Usep. 18
Linguistics and the Arrival of the Wintup. 18
Historical Linguisticsp. 22
Wintu Linguisticsp. 22
Wintu Culture as Known through the Ethnographic Recordp. 27
Wintu Foodsp. 28
Deer Huntingp. 31
Bear Huntingp. 32
Fishingp. 33
Plant Gathering and Processingp. 36
Wintu Social Organizationp. 38
Wintu Chiefsp. 38
Shamansp. 40
Marriagep. 41
Gamblingp. 41
Warfarep. 42
Village Architecture: Implications for the Archaeological Recordp. 42
Discussionp. 43
Archaeology of a Wintu Village, "Kum Bay Xerel" (CA-SHA-1043)p. 45
Field Methodsp. 46
Site Structure and Chronologyp. 50
Stratigraphic Profilesp. 50
Cultural Featuresp. 52
Radiocarbon Datesp. 60
Projectile Pointsp. 61
Beadsp. 61
Prehistoric Toolsp. 64
Flaked-stone Toolsp. 64
Bone Toolsp. 68
Food Remainsp. 70
Plant Foodsp. 70
Filaree: European Plants Outpacing the Explorers?p. 73
Animal Foodsp. 74
Discussionp. 78
End of an Era: First Contacts with Europeansp. 79
John Work and the 1833 Malaria Epidemicp. 80
Archaeology of the Primary Cemetery Area: Evidence for the Malaria Epidemic?p. 84
Dating the Primary Cemetery Areap. 86
Treatment of the Deadp. 90
Age of the Deadp. 94
Males, Females, and Interpersonal Violencep. 96
Rich People, Poor Peoplep. 100
Other Historic-period Artifactsp. 102
Other Sites in the Areap. 102
Discussionp. 103
Summary and Conclusionsp. 107
Photo Creditsp. 115
Recommended Readingsp. 117
About the Authors: Dr. William R. Hildebrandt and Michael J. Darcangelo, Far Westernp. 119
List of Tables
Projectile Point Frequencies from the Village at CA-SHA-1043p. 62
Artifacts from the Village Deposits at CA-SHA-1043p. 65
A Comparison of Artifacts from the Village and the Cemetery at CA-SHA-1043p. 86
List of Figures
Location Mapp. 2
Some of the Excavation Team at CA-SHA-1043p. 3
Measuring an Obsidian Hydration Rimp. 10
Medicine Lake Obsidian Hydration Curve Based on Radiocarbon-Hydration Pairsp. 11
Chronologically Diagnostic Projectile Point Typesp. 12
Atlatl and Dartp. 15
Squaw Creek Pattern (5000-3000 BP) Incised Stone from the Sacramento River Canyonp. 16
Prehistoric Settlement Zones along the Upper Sacramento Riverp. 19
Distribution of Time-sensitive Projectile Points Across Key Environmental Settingsp. 20
Medicine Lake Obsidian Hydration Data from Key Environmental Settingsp. 21
Linguistic Map of Northern Californiap. 21
Important Speakers of the Wintu Languagep. 23
Wintu Subareas from Cora Du Boisp. 29
Wintu People from Birth to Middle Agep. 30
Wintu Eldersp. 31
Location of CA-SHA-1043 in Relation to the Sacramento Riverp. 32
Salmon Harpoon after Du Boisp. 34
Wintu Salmon Housep. 35
Wintu Fish Weirp. 36
Salmon Drying on the River Barp. 37
Burden Basket and Hopper Mortarp. 39
Clamshell Disk Moneyp. 40
Backhoe Trenches and Hand Excavation Units within the Village Portions of CA-SHA-1043p. 47
Field Workers Excavating at CA-SHA-1043p. 48
Wintu Trainees Screening, Ester Stevenson and Veronica Graybelp. 48
Wintu Representatives Observing Materials at Field Lab, Kelli Hayward, Linda Malone, and Lori Lightp. 49
Stratigraphic Profile of the S7/W23 Exposurep. 51
Feature 3, Burned House Remainsp. 53
Traditional Wintu House Similar to Feature 3p. 55
Stratigraphic Profile of Feature 21, Earthen Lodgep. 56
Plan View of Timber Zone (Stratum I; 70 cm) at Feature 21, Earthen Lodgep. 57
Plan View of Fill and Floor Zones (Stratum III; 135 cm) at Feature 21, Earthen Lodgep. 58
An Earthen Lodge from Wintoon Territoryp. 59
Close-up of Burned Timbers from Feature 21, Earthen Lodgep. 59
Projectile Points from the Village at CA-SHA-1043p. 63
Key Obsidian Source Areas in Northern Californiap. 66
Alternative Flaked-stone Tool Production Strategiesp. 67
Bone Tools from CA-SHA-1043p. 69
Charred Plant Remains from CA-SHA-1043p. 72
Filaree Seed and Foliagep. 73
Animal Foods from CA-SHA-1043p. 75-76
Fish Caught and Eaten at CA-SHA-1043p. 77
Route of John Work's Expedition to California, 1832-1833p. 81
Primary Cemetery Area at CA-SHA-1043p. 85
Hudson Bay Company Covered Copper Kettlep. 87
Glass Trade Beads from CA-SHA-1043 (full scale)p. 89
Relative Percentage of Glass, Clam, and Olivella Shell Beads by Burialp. 91
Structural Characteristics of the Cemetery Areap. 93
Percentage of Each Age Class within the Primary Cemetery at CA-SHA-1043p. 95
Probability of Death by Age Class at CA-SHA-1043p. 96
Percentage of Adult Males and Females by Age Class at CA-SHA-1043p. 97
Percentage of Population (Historic Period and Prehistoric) with Traumatic Injuries According to Sexp. 98
Percentage of Population (Historic Period and Prehistoric) Buried with Beads and Ornamentsp. 101
United States 1842 Military Pistol Compared to the Gun Discovered at CA-SHA-1043p. 103
Copper Black Powder Flask Discovered at CA-SHA-1043p. 104
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