Catholic Bioethics and the Gift of Human Life

ISBN-10: 1592763308

ISBN-13: 9781592763306

Edition: 2nd

Authors: William E. May

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Book details

List price: $19.95
Edition: 2nd
Publisher: Our Sunday Visitor, Publishing Division
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 368
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Introduction to the Second Edition
Church Teaching and Major Issues In Bioethics
John Paul II's Encyclical Evangelium Vitae
Chapter One: "Present-Day Threats to Human Life"
Chapter Two: "The Christian Message Concerning Life"
Chapter Three: "God's Holy Law"
Chapter Four: "For a New Culture of Human Life"
Conclusion
The Vatican Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation (Donum Vitae)
Introduction
Part I: Respect for Human Embryos
Part II: Interventions Upon Human Procreation
Heterologous Artificial Insemination
Homologous Artificial Insemination
Part III: Moral Law and Civil Law
Conclusion
Declaration on Procured Abortion
Introduction
In the Light of Faith
In the Additional Light of Reason
Reply to Some Objections
Morality and the Law
Conclusion
Declaration on Euthanasia
Introduction
Part I: The Value of Human Life
Part II: Euthanasia
Part III: The Meaning of Suffering for Christians and the Use of Painkillers
Part IV: Due Proportion in the Use of Remedies
Conclusion to Chapter One
Endnotes for Chapter One
Making True Moral Judgments and Good Moral Choices
The Meaning of a "Human Act"; Its Existential and Religious Significance; the Sources of Its Moral Character
The Meaning of a "Human Act"
The Existential, Religious Significance of Human Acts as Freely Chosen
The Sources of the Morality of a Human Act
Kinds of Human Dignity; Human Freedom and God's Wise and Loving Plan for Human Existence
Kinds of Human Dignity
Human Freedom of Choice and God's Wise and Loving Plan for Human Existence
The Relationship Between the "Good" and Human Choices and Action; the First Principles of Natural Law
Normative Truths of Natural Law
Steps in Making True Moral Judgments
The "Fulfillment" or "Perfection" of Natural Law Through the Redemptive Work of Christ
Endnotes for Chapter Two
Generating Human Life: Marriage and the New Reproductive Technologies
Introduction
Part One: Fornication, Adultery, and the Generation of Human Life
Part Two: Marriage and the Generation of Human Life
Marriage, Marital Rights, and Capacities
The Meaning of the Marital Act
"Begetting" Human Life Through the Marital Act
Part Three: Generating Human Life Through New Reproductive Technologies
The Teaching of Pius XII and the Pontifical Academy for Life
The New Reproductive Technologies
Artificial Fertilization
Artificial Insemination
In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer
Alternative Technologies Using Male and Female Gametic Cells
Cloning or Agametic Reproduction
An Ethical and Theological Evaluation of the New Reproductive Technologies
Ethical Reasons Why Non-Marital Ways of Generating New Human Life Are Intrinsically Immoral
The Basic Theological Reason Why Human Life Ought To Be Generated Only in and Through the Marital Act
Part Four: "Assisted" Insemination/Fertilization
Basic Criteria
Acknowledged Instances of Assisted Insemination or Fertilization
Use of Perforated Condom to Circumvent Hypospadias
Low Tubal Ovum Transfer (LTOT)
Moving Sperm Deposited in the Vagina Into the Uterus and Fallopian Tubes
Controverted Technologies
Temporary Removal of Sperm or of Ova to "Wash" and "Capacitate" Them
Accumulating Sperm From a Series of Marital Acts and Introducing Them Into the Wife's Vagina in Conjunction With a Marital Act
Gamete Intrafallopian Tube Transfer (GIFT) and Tubal Ovum Transfer with Sperm (TOTS)
Conclusion to Part Four; a Word About Fertility Drugs
Part Five: "Rescuing" Frozen Embryos
Does Donum Vitae Itself Provide an Answer?
Truths Accepted by All Parties to the Debate
Central Moral Considerations
Reasons Supporting an Affirmative Answer
Objections
It Is Intrinsically Evil for a Woman to Allow Herself to Become Pregnant by Means Other Than the Conjugal Act
Geach on the "Moral Object" Necessarily Entailed in HET
Tonti-Filippini on HET as Marital Infidelity
Pacholczyk on Pregnancy as Integral to Procreation and HET as Violating the Integrity of Marriage
Austriaco's Argument Based on the Father's Role in Conception/Pregnancy
Summarizing Conclusion to the Objection That HET Is Intrinsically Evil Because It Violates Marriage or the Conjugal Act or a Woman's Reproductive Integrity
It Is Intrinsically Evil for an Unmarried Woman to Become Pregnant With an Abandoned and Orphaned Embryo and Give It Up for Adoption After Birth
Conclusion
Endnotes for Chapter Three
Contraception and Respect for Human Life
Introduction
Pope John Paul II on the Roots of the Culture of Death and Contraception's Relationship to It
Contraception vs. "Recourse to the Rhythm of the Cycle": Their Anthropological and Moral Differences, One Ultimately Entailing "Irreconcilable Concepts of the Human Person and of Human Sexuality"
Contraception: Its Underlying Anthropology and Moral Methodology
Recourse to the Rhythm of the Cycle: Its Underlying Anthropology and Moral Methodology
Contraception: An Anti-Life Act
Contraception: Both Anti-Love and Anti-Life
Sterilization
Why Contraceptive Sterilization Is Morally Wrong
Medical Dangers of Tubal Ligation
Moral Dangers of Contraception and Sterilization
What to Do if One Has Been Sterilized?
Condoms and Prevention of HIV
It Is Intrinsically Evil for Spouses to Use Condoms as a Means of Preventing Their Intercourse From Transmitting HIV Because Such Intercourse Is Not Per Se Apt for Generation and Is Hence "Non-Marital"
Such Use of Condoms by Spouses Is Intrinsically Wrong Because It Renders Such Acts "Non-Marital" by Making Them Unfit for "One Flesh" Union
Such Use Is Also Intrinsically Wrong Because It Is Frequently Done With Contraceptive Intent
Such Use Cannot Be Approved as "The Lesser of Two Evils"
Preventing Conception When in Danger of Rape or After Rape
Endnotes for Chapter Four
Abortion and Human Life
Introduction: Structure of This Chapter
Resume and Clarification of Church Teaching
The Definition of Abortion
"Ensoulment" or Infusion of the Immortal Soul
"Direct" vs. "Indirect" Abortion
Some Relevant Scientific Data
It Is Reasonable to Believe That Most People Begin at Fertilization and Unreasonable to Deny This
Personhood Requires Exercisable Cognitive Abilities
Personhood Depends on Sense Organs and a Brain: The "Delayed Hominization" Theory
Individual Personhood Cannot Be Established Before Implantation
The Special Moral Gravity of Abortion, a Woman's "Right" to Abortion, the Difference Between a "Right" and a "Liberty"
The Unique Moral Gravity of Abortion
A Woman's "Right" to an Abortion
The Difference Between a "Right" and a "Liberty"
Abortion as "Removal" vs. Abortion as "Killing"
Lee's Analysis and Position
Critique
The Management of Ectopic Pregnancies
Ectopic Pregnancies and Their Frequency
Medically Available Procedures for Coping With Ectopic Pregnancies
The Ethical and Religious Directives
Current Debates Over Management of Ectopic Pregnancies
Conclusion to Chapter Five
Endnotes for Chapter Five
Experimentation on Human Subjects
Introduction: The Cardinal Principle of Free and Informed Consent
Basic Types of Experimentation
The Key Principle or "Canon of Loyalty": The Principle of Free and Informed Consent
The Principle of Free and Informed Consent and Relevant Teaching of the Magisterium
Interpreting This Principle
Other Ethical Principles/Norms Governing Biomedical Research on Human Subjects
Proxy Consent: Its Meaning, Justification, and Limits
Proxy Consent in the Therapeutic Situation
Voluntary Consent in the Non-Therapeutic Situation: Can This Ever Be Morally Required?
Proxy Consent in the Non-Therapeutic Situation
Arguments For and Against
Relevant Magisterial Teaching
Conclusion to "Proxy" Consent for Non-Competent or "Voiceless" Subjects to Participate in Non-Therapeutic Experimentations
Research on the Unborn, in Particular, Embryonic Stem-Cell Research
What Are Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Why Are They Sought for Research?
Why Research on Embryonic Stem Cells Is Gravely Immoral
Propaganda vs. Facts
Legitimate Sources of Stem Cells for Research
Proposed New Sources for Embryonic Stem Cells in Ways That Do Not Require the Killing of Human Beings During the Embryonic Stage of Their Existence
Pluripotent Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells
The President's Council on Bioethics 2005 "White Paper"
Hurlbut's Altered Nuclear Transfer Proposal
Altered Nuclear Transfer-Oocyte Assisted Reprogramming
Pluripotent Cells in Amniotic Fluid
Pluripotent Stem Cells From Mice
Genetic Therapy
Gene Therapy: Its Definition and Types
How Gene Therapy "Works"
Strategies for Gene Therapy
Delivering Therapeutic Genes
The Morality of Somatic Cell Gene Therapy
Germ-Line "Therapy"
Prenatal and Pre-Implantation Screening
Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening
Moral Misuse of Prenatal Screening
Morally Good Uses of Prenatal Testing
Conclusion
Pre-Implantation Diagnosis and Screening
Genetic Counseling
The Human Genome Project
Endnotes for Chapter Six
Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide, and Care of the Dying
Introduction: The Contemporary Movement for Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
Clarifying the Terminology
The "Ethics of Euthanasia"
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
The "Principle of Autonomy"
"Personal" Life vs. "Biological" Life
Nonvoluntary Euthanasia
"Quality of Life" Judgments Justifying Nonvoluntary Euthanasia
Nonpersonhood and Nonvoluntary Euthanasia
The Legal or Jurisprudential Issue
Summary and Conclusion: The "Ethics of Euthanasia"
Critique of the "Ethics of Euthanasia"
Autonomy and Voluntary Euthanasia vs. the Sanctity of Life
"Quality of Life" Judgments and Justice
Dualism and Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia and the Law
The "Ethics of Benemortasia"
The Intrinsic Good of Human Life and the Evil of Intentional Killing
Criteria for Distinguishing Between "Ordinary" ("Proportionate") and "Extraordinary" ("Disproportionate") Treatments
Relevant Church Teaching and Its Interpretation
Interpreting Pius XII's Statement: Kevin O'Rourke's View Criticized
Legitimate vs. Illegitimate "Quality of Life" Judgments
Richard McCormick's "Quality of Life" Position
Criteria for Determining Whether Treatments Are "Ordinary" ("Proportionate") or "Extraordinary" ("Disproportionate")
Summary: The Presuppositions of the "Ethics of Benemortasia"
Caring for the Permanently Unconscious and Persons in the "Persistent Vegetative State"
Introduction
Comments on the "'Persistent' Vegetative State"
Responses Prior to Pope John Paul II's Address
Responses by U.S. Bishops
The Theological Position Claiming That Tubal Feeding of PVS Patients Is Not Morally Required
The Position Holding That Artificially Providing Food to PVS Persons Is Obligatory
Pope John Paul II's Address of March 20, 2004
Context and Key Themes
Comments
Negative Responses to This Address
My Defense of John Paul II's Address
Compatibility of the March 20 Address With "Traditional Catholic Teaching"
Does John Paul II Impose Excessively Grave Burdens on Families?
Definitive Defense by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's August 1, 2007, "Responses to Certain Questions of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Concerning Artificial Nutrition and Hydration"
Advance Directives
The Living Will
The Durable Power of Attorney
Endnotes for Chapter Seven
Defining Death and Organ Transplantaton
Introduction
The State of the Question Up to 2000
Pope John Paul II on Death Prior to 2000
The Value of Human Life, Including Bodily Life
The Definition of Death
Human Death and Organ Transplants
The Conclusions of the "Working Group" of Scientists
The Clinical Definition of Death
Clinical Indications That Death Has Occurred
Artificial Prolongation of Organ Functions
The Rationale for Identifying "Brain Death" With Human Death
Historical Background
The Consensus on "Brain Death": The Report of the President's Commission
The Presuppositions Underlying This Consensus
Alan Shewmon's Challenge to "Brain Death"
Evidence Challenging the Claim That the Brain Is the Central Integrating Organ
Criteria for Determining the "Integrative Unity" of the Human Body
New Criteria for Determining That Death Has Occurred
Pope John Paul II's Address of August 29, 2000, and Shewmon's Commentary Thereon
Pope John Paul II's Address of August 29, 2000, to the Eighteenth Meeting of the Transplantation Society
The Text of the Papal Address
Comment
Shewmon's Commentary on the Holy Father's Address
Important Recent Developments in the Debate Over "Brain Death"
The President's Council on Bioethics
Meeting of September 6, 2007
Meeting of November 9, 2007
Other Developments
Shewmon's Post-2000 Position
James DuBois's Views
Evaluative Conclusion to This Debate
Significant Developments in the First Part of 2008
Organ Transplants From the Living (Inter Vivos)
Endnotes for Chapter Eight
Bibliography and Resources
Index
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