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Metalogicon A Twelfth-Century Defense of the Verbal and Logical Arts of the Trivium

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ISBN-10: 1589880587

ISBN-13: 9781589880580

Edition: 2009

Authors: John of Salisbury, Daniel McGarry

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Book details

Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Paul Dry Books, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/1/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 305
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

John of Salisbury (ca. 1115-76) studied with the great masters of the early twelfth century, including Peter Abelard and Gilbert of Poitiers, served as an aid to Thomas � Becket, a friend to Pope Hadrian IV, an annoyance (if not an enemy) to England's Henry II, and died as Bishop of Chartres.

Introduction: John of Salisbury History of the Text Analysis of the Metalogicon Sources Latin of the Metalogicon Historical Position
The false accusation that has evoked this rejoinder to Cornificius
A description of Cornificius, without giving his name
When, how, and by whom Cornificius was educated
The lot of his companions in error
What great men that tribe dares to defame, and why they do this
The arguments on which Cornificius bases his contention
Praise of Eloquence
The necessity of helping nature by use and exercise
That one who attacks logic is trying to rob mankind of eloquence
What "logic" means, and how we should endeavor to acquire all arts that are not reprobate
The nature of art, the various hinds of innate abilities, and the fact that natural talents should be cultivated and developed by the arts
Why some arts are called "liberal"
Whence grammar gets its name
Although it is not natural, grammar imitates nature
That adjectives of secondary application should not be copulated with nouns of primary application, as in the example "a patronymic horse"
That adjectives of primary origin are copulated with nouns of primary application
That grammar also imitates nature in poetry
What grammar should prescribe, and what it should forbid
That a knowledge of figures [of speech] is most useful
with what the grammarian should concern himself
By what great men grammar has been appreciated, and the fact that ignorance of this art is as much a handicap in philosophy as is deafness and dumbness
That Cornificius invokes the authority of Seneca to defend his erroneous contentions
The chief aids to philosophical inquiry and the practice of virtue; as well as how grammar is the foundation of both philosophy and virtue
Practical observations on reading and lecturing, together with [an account of] the method employed by Bernard of Chartres and his followers
A short conclusion concerning the value of grammar
Because its object is to ascertain the truth, logic is a valuable asset in all fields of philosophy
The Peripatetic school, and the origin and founder of logic
That those who would philosophize should be taught logic. Also the distinction between demonstrative, probable, and sophistical logic
What dialectic is, and whence it gets its name
The subdivisions of the dialectical art, and the objective of logicians
That all seek after logic, yet not all are successful in their quest
That those who are verbal jugglers of irrelevant nonsense must first be disabused of their erring ways before they can come to know anything
If they had but heeded Aristotle, he would have prevented them from going to extremes
That dialectic is ineffective when it is divorced from other studies
On whose authority the foregoing and following are based
The limited extent of the efficacy of dialectic by itself
The subject mater of dialectic, and the means it uses
The tremendous value of a scientific knowledge of probable principles; and the difficulties involved in determining what principles are absolutely necessary
More on the same subject
What is a dialectical proposition, and what a dialectical problem
That all other teachers of this art [of dialectic] acknowledge Aristotle as their master
In what a pernicious manner logic is sometimes taught; and the ideas of moderns about [the nature of] genera and species
That men always alter the opinions of their predecessors
Wherein teachers of this kind are not to be forgiven
Aristotle's opinion concerning genera and species, supported by numerous confirmatory reasons and references to written works
How one should lecture on Porphyry and other books
The utility of the Categories, and [some remarks concerning] their instruments
What is the scope of the predicaments, and with what the prudent moderation of those who philosophize should rest content
The scope and usefulness of the Periermenie [Interpretation], or more correctly of the Periermenias
What constitutes the body of the art, and [some remarks on] the utility of the book of the Topics
The utility and scope of the [first] three books of the Topics
A brief account of the fourth and fifth books [of the Topics]
Of definition, the subject of the sixth book [of the Topics]
The problem of identity and diversity, which is treated in the seventh book; together with some general observations concerning the Topics
The utility of the eighty book [of the Topics]
The book of the Analytics examines reasoning
The universal utility of this sciences [of the Analytics], and the etymology of its title
The book's utility does not include the provision of rhetorical expression
The scope of the first book [of the Analytics]
The scope of the second book] [of the Analytics]
The difficulty of the Posterior Analytics, and whence this [difficulty] proceeds
Why Aristotle has come to be called "the philosopher" par excellence
The [proper] function of demonstrative logic, as well as the sources and techniques of demonstration. Also the fact that sensation is the basis of science, and how this is true
What sensation is, and how it, together with imagination, is the foundation of every branch of philosophy
Imagination, and the fact that it is the source of affections that either compose and order, or disturb and deform the soul
The nature of imagination, together with remarks on opinion. Also how opinion and sensation may be deceived, and the origin of fronesis, which we call "prudence"
The nature, subject matter, and activities of prudence; and how science originates from sensation
The difference between "science" and "wisdom," and what is "faith"
The relationship of prudence and truth, the origins of prudence, and the nature of reason
More about what reason is; as well as the fact that the word "reason" has several different meanings; and that reasons are everlasting
A distinction of various meanings [of the word "reason"], and the fact that brute animals do not possess reason, even though they may seem to have discernment. Also the origin of human reason according to the Hebrews
Reason's function; why sensation, which reason supervises, is situated in the head; and who are philology's servants
The distinction between reason and [intuitive] understanding, and the nature of the latter
The nature of wisdom, and the fact that, with the help of grace, wisdom derives [originally] from sense perception
The cognition, simplicity, and immortality of the soul, according to Cicero
Although Aristotle has not sufficiently discussed hypothetical [conditional] reasoning in the foregoing books, he has, as it were, sowed seed for such a treatment
Sophistry and its utility
The Sophistical Refutations
A word about those who disparage the works of Aristotle
The fact that Cornificius is even more contemptible than Bromius, the buffoon of the gods. Also how Augustine and other philosophers praise logic
What tactics we should employ against Cornificius, and [other like] perverse calumniators [of logic]
Although he has been mistaken on several points, Aristotle is preeminent in logic
How logic should be employed
That the temerity of adolescence should be restrained; why eloquence weds philology; and what should be our main objectives
The fact that philology precedes its two sisters. Also what investigation by categories is appropriate in a discussion of reason and truth
The nature of original reason, and some observations concerning philosophical sects
What is opposed to reason, and the fact that the word "reason" has several different senses, as well as that reasons are eternal
The imperfection of human reason; and the fact that the word "true" has various senses
The etymology of the word uerum ["true"], the nature of truth, and what is contrary to truth, and what is contrary to truth
More about truths, and the fact that things, words, and truths are said to exist in different ways, with an explanation of the latter
The difference between things that are true and things that only seem to be true, according to the Platonists
That things, opinions, and speech are called "true" or "false" in different senses; and why such expressions are called "modal"
The intimate connection between reason and truth, with a brief explanation concerning the nature of each
A continuation of the aforesaid [discussion]. Also the fact that neither reason nor truth have contraries
The proper aim of the Peripatetics, as well as of all who philosophize correctly, and the eight obstacles to understanding
[Untitled] [The limitations of reason and the function of faith]
How the fact that the world is subject to vanity is confirmed by visible proofs, and why this book is now concluded