Polymer Extrusion

ISBN-10: 1569903212

ISBN-13: 9781569903216

Edition: 4th 2001

Authors: Chris Rauwendaal

List price: $199.95
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Description:

This bestseller examines the min components of extruders used for processing thermoplastics, including drives, reducers, bearings, screws, dies, screens, heating and cooling systems, and instrumentation and control. Basic principles, polymer properties, applications, and analysis of processes are presented. “Rauwendaal has succeeded once more in improving an already excellent work, and providing what will come to be regarded as a classic text by future generations.” Polymer News
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Book details

List price: $199.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Hanser Publications
Publication date: 1/1/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 791
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.388
Language: English

Preface to the Fourth Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Introduction
Basic Process
Scope of the Book
General Literature Survey
History of Polymer Extrusion
References
Extrusion Machinery
Different Types of Extruders
The Single Screw Extruder
Basic Operation
Vented Extruders
Rubber Extruders
The Multiscrew Extruder
The Twin Screw Extruder
The Multiscrew Extruder with More Than Two Screws
The Gear Pump Extruder
Disk Extruders
Viscous Drag Disk Extruders
The Elastic Melt Extruder
Overview of Disk Extruders
Ram Extruders
Single Ram Extruders
Multi Ram Extruder
Appendix 2.1
References
Extruder Hardware
Extruder Drive
AC Motor Drive System
DC Motor Drive System
Hydraulic Drive System
Comparison of Various Drive Systems
Reducer
Constant Torque Characteristics
Thrust Bearing Assembly
Barrel and Feed Throat
Feed Hopper
Extruder Screw
Die Assembly
Screens and Screen Changers
Heating and Cooling Systems
Electric Heating
Fluid Heating
Extruder Cooling
Screw Heating and Cooling
References
Instrumentation and Control
Instrumentation Requirements
Most Important Parameters
Pressure Measurement
The Importance of Melt Pressure
Different Types of Pressure Transducers
Mechanical Considerations
Specifications
Comparisons of Different Transducers
Temperature Measurement
Methods of Temperature Measurement
Barrel Temperature Measurement
Stock Temperature Measurement
Other Measurements
Power Measurement
Rotational Speed
Extrudate Thickness
Extrudate Surface Conditions
Temperature Control
On-Off Control
Proportional Control
Controllers
Time-Temperature Characteristics
Tuning of the Controller Parameters
Total Process Control
True Total Extrusion Process Control
References
Process Analysis
Fundamental Principles
Balance Equations
The Mass Balance Equation
The Momentum Balance Equation
The Energy Balance Equation
Basic Thermodynamics
Rubber Elasticity
Strain Induced Crystallization
Heat Transfer
Conductive Heat Transfer
Convective Heat Transfer
Dimensionless Numbers
Viscous Heat Generation
Radiative Heat Transport
Basics of Devolatilization
Devolatilization of Particular Polymer
Devolatilization of Polymer Melts
Appendix 5.1
References
Important Polymer Properties
Properties of Bulk Materials
Bulk Density
Coefficient of Friction
Particle Size and Shape
Other Properties
Melt Flow Properties
Basic Definitions
Power Law Fluid
Other Fluid Models
Effect of Temperature and Pressure
Viscoelastic Behavior
Measurement of Flow Properties
Thermal Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Specific Volume and Morphology
Specific Heat and Heat of Fusion
Specific Enthalpy
Thermal Diffusivity
Melting Point
Induction Time
Thermal Characterization
Polymer Property Summary
References
Functional Process Analysis
Basic Screw Geometry
Solids Conveying
Gravity Induced Solids Conveying
Drag Induced Solids Conveying
Plasticating
Theoretical Model of Contiguous Solids Melting
Other Melting Models
Power Consumption in the Melting Zone
Computer Simulation
Dispersed Solids Melting
Melt Conveying
Newtonian Fluids
Power Law Fluids
Non-Isothermal Analysis
Die Forming
Velocity and Temperature Profiles
Extrudate Swell
Die Flow Instabilities
Devolatilization
Mixing
Mixing in Screw Extruders
Static Mixing Devices
Dispersive Mixing
Backmixing
Appendix 7.1
Appendix 7.2
Appendix 7.3
References
Practical Applications
Extruder Screw Design
Mechanical Considerations
Torsional Strength of the Screw Root
Strength of the Screw Flight
Lateral Deflection of the Screw
Optimization for Output
Optimizing for Melt Conveying
Optimizing for Plasticating
Optimizing for Solids Conveying
Optimizing for Power Consumption
Optimum Helix Angle
Effect of Flight Clearance
Effect of Flight Width
Single Flighted Extruder Screws
The Standard Extruder Screw
Modifications of the Standard Extruder Screw
Devolatilizing Extruder Screws
Functional Design Considerations
Various Vented Extruder Screw Designs
Vent Port Configuration
Multi-Flighted Extruder Screws
The Conventional Multi-Flighted Extruder Screws
Barrier Flight Extruder Screw
Mixing Screws
Dispersive Mixing Elements
Distributive Mixing Elements
Scale-Up
Common Scale-Up Factors
Scale-Up for Heat Transfer
Scale-Up for Mixing
Comparison of Various Scale-Up Methods
Rebuilding Worn Screws and Barrels
Application of Hardfacing Materials
Rebuilding of Extruder Barrels
References
Die Design
Basic Considerations
Balancing the Die by Adjusting the Land Length
Balancing by Channel Height
Other Methods of Die Balancing
Film and Sheet Dies
Flow Adjustment in Sheet and Film Dies
The Horseshoe Die
Pipe and Tubing Dies
Tooling Design for Tubing
Blown Film Dies
The Spiral Mandrel Geometry
Effect of Die Geometry on Flow Distribution
Summary Spiral Mandrel Die Design Variables
Profile Extrusion Dies
Coextrusion
Interface Distortion
Calibrators
References
Twin Screw Extruders
Introduction
Twin versus Single Screw Extruder
Intermeshing Co-Rotating Extruders
Closely Intermeshing Extruders
Self-Wiping Extruders
Intermeshing Counter-Rotating Extruders
Non-Intermeshing Twin Screw Extruders
Coaxial Twin Screw Extruder
Devolatilization in Twin Screw Extruders
Commercial Twin Screw Extruders
Screw Design Issues for Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Scale-Up in Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Overview Twin Screw Extruders
References
Troubleshooting Extruders
Requirements for Efficient Troubleshooting
Instrumentation
Understanding of the Extrusion Process
Collect and Analyze Historical Data (Timeline)
Team Building
Condition of the Equipment
Information on the Feed Stock
Tools for Troubleshooting
Temperature Measurement Devices
Data Acquisition Systems (DAS)
Light Microscopy
Thermochromic Materials
Thermal Analysis
Miscellaneous Tools
Systematic Troubleshooting
Upsets versus Development Problems
Machine Related Problems
Polymer Degradation
Extrusion Instabilities
Air Entrapment
Gel Problems
Die Flow Problems
References
Modeling and Simulation of the Extrusion Process
Introduction
Background
Analytical Techniques
Numerical Methods
Remeshing Techniques in Moving Boundary Problems
Rheology
Simulating 3-D Flows with 2-D Models
Simulating Flows in Internal Batch Mixers with 2-D Models
Simulating Flows in Extrusion with 2-D Models
Simulating Flows in Extrusion Dies with 2-D Models
Three-Dimensional Simulation
Simulating Flows in the Banbury Mixer with 3-Dimensional Models
Simulating Flows in Extrusion Dies with 3-Dimensional Models
Simulating Flows in Extrusion with 3-Dimensional Models
Static Mixers
Conclusions
References
Index
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