How to Make Injection Molds

ISBN-10: 1569902828

ISBN-13: 9781569902820

Edition: 3rd 2001

Authors: Georg Menges, Walter Michaeli, Paul Mohren

List price: $249.95
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Description:

Economic success in the plastics processing industry depends on the quality, precision, and reliability of its most common tool: the injection mold. Consequently, misjudgments in design and mistakes in the manufacturing of molds can result in grave consequences. This comprehensive handbook for the design and manufacture of injection molds covers all aspects of how to successfully make injection molds from a practical as well as from a theoretical point of view. It should serve as an indispensable reference work for everyone engaged in mold making. "...an example of how books should be written ... will be used by molders, mold designers and mold makers and will become a standard." Polymer News
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Book details

List price: $249.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Hanser Publications
Publication date: 1/1/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 612
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

Materials for Injection Molds
Steels
Summary
Case-Hardening Steels
Nitriding Steels
Through-Hardening Steels
Heat-Treated Steels
Martensitic Steels
Hard Mold Alloys
Corrosion-Resistant Steels
Refined Steels
Cast Steel
Nonferrous Metallics
Copper Alloys
Zinc and its Alloys
Aluminum Alloys
Bismucth-Tin Alloys
Materials for Electrolytic Deposition
Surface Treatment of Steels for Injection Molds
General Information
Heat Treatment of Steels
Thermochemical Treatment Methods
Electrochemical Treatments
Coating at Reduced Pressure
Laser Surface Treatment
Laser Hardening and Re-Melting
Laser Alloying, Dispersing, and Coating
Electron Beam Hardening
Lamcoat Coating
References
Mold Making Techniques
Production of Metallic Injection Molds and Mold Inserts by Casting
Casting Methods and Cast Alloys
Sand Casting
Precision Casting Techniques
Rapid Tooling for Injection Molds
State of the Art
Direct Rapid Tooling
Indirect Rapid Tooling (Multistage Process Chains)
Outlook
Hobbing
Machining and Other Material Removing Operations
Machining Production Methods
Surface Treatment (Finishing)
Electric-Discharge Forming Processes
Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM)
Cutting by Spark Erosion with Traveling-Wire Electrodes
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Electrochemical Material Removal-Etching
Surfaces Processed by Spark Erosion or Chemical Dissolution (Etching)
Laser Carving
Rapid Tooling with LASERCAV
Molds for the Fusible-Core Technique
Molds for Sheathing the Fusible Cores
Molds for Making the Fusible Cores
References
Procedure for Estimating Mold Costs
General Outline
Procedures for Estimating Mold Costs
Cost Group I: Cavity
Computation of Working Hours for Cavities
Time Factor for Machining Procedure
Machine Time for Cavity Depth
Time Consumption for Cavity Surface
Time Factor for Parting Line
Time Factor for Surface Quality
Machining Time for Fixed Cores
Time Factor for Tolerances
Time Factor for Degree of Difficulty and Multifariousness
Time Factor for Number of Cavities
Computation of Working Hours for EDM Electrodes
Cost Group II: Basic Molds
Cost Group III: Basic Functional Components
Sprue and Runner System
Runner System
Hot-Runner Systems
Heat-Exchange System
Ejector System
Cost Group IV: Special Functions
Other Cost Calculation Methods
Costs Based on Similarity Considerations
The Principle behind Hierarchical Similarity Searching
References
The Injection Molding Process
Cycle Sequence in Injection Molding
Injection Molding of Thermoplastics
Injection Molding of Crosslinkable Plastics
Terms Used in Connection with Injection Molds
Classification of Molds
Functions of the Injection Mold
Criteria for Classification of Molds
Basic Procedure for Mold Design
Determination of Mold Size
The Flow Length/Wall Thickness Ratio
Computation of Number of Cavities
Cavity Layouts
General Requirements
Presentation of Possible Solutions
Equilibrium of Forces in a Mold During Injection
Number of Parting Lines
References
Design of Runner Systems
Characterization of the Complete Runner System
Concept and Definition of Various Types of Runners
Standard Runner Systems
Hot-Runner Systems
Cold-Runner Systems
Demands on the Runner System
Classification of Runner Systems
The Sprue
Design of Runners
Design of Gates
Position of the Gate at the Part
Runners and Gates for Reactive Materials
Elastomers
Thermosets
Effect of Gate Position for Elastomers
Runners for Highly-Filled Melts
Qualitative (Flow Pattern) and Quantitative Computation of the Filling Process of a Mold (Simulation Models)
Introduction
The Flow Pattern and its Significance
Using the Flow Pattern for Preparing a Simulation of the Filling Process
Theoretical Basis for Producing a Flow Pattern
Practical Procedure for Graphically Producing a Flow Pattern
Quantitative Analysis of Filling
Analytical Design of Runners and Gates
Special Phenomena Associated with Multiple Gating
Design of Gates and Runners for Crosslinking Compounds
Elastomers
Thermosets
References
Design of Gates
The Sprue Gate
The Edge or Fan Gate
The Disk Gate
The Ring Gate
The Tunnel Gate (Submarine Gate)
The Pinpoint Gate in Three-Platen Molds
Reversed Sprue with Pinpoint Gate
Runnerless Molding
Molds with Insulated Runners
Temperature-Controlled Runner Systems--Hot Runners
Hot-Runner Systems
Cold Runners
Special Mold Concepts
Stack Molds
Molds for Multicomponent Injection Molding
References
Venting of Molds
Passive Venting
Active Venting
Venting of Gas Counter-Pressure Injection Molds
References
The Heat Exchange System
Cooling Time
Thermal Diffusivity of Several Important Materials
Thermal Diffusivity of Elastomers
Thermal Diffusivity of Thermosets
Computation of Cooling Time of Thermoplastics
Estimation
Computation of Cooling Time with Nomograms
Cooling Time with Asymmetrical Wall Temperatures
Cooling Time for Other Geometries
Heat Flux and Heat-Exchange Capacity
Heat Flux
Analytical, Thermal Calculation of the Heat-Exchange System Based on the Specific Heat Flux (Overall Design)
Analytical Thermal Calculation
Numerical Computation for Thermal Design of Molded Parts
Two-Dimensional Computation
Three-Dimensional Computation
Simple Estimation of the Heat Flow at Critical Points
Empirical Correction for Cooling a Corner
Practical Design of Cooling Systems
Heat-Exchange Systems for Cores and Parts with Circular Cross-Section
Cooling Systems for Flat Parts
Sealing of Cooling Systems
Dynamic Mold Cooling
Empirical Compensation of Corner Distortion in Thermoplastic Parts from Heat-Flux Differences
Calculation for Heated Molds for Reactive Materials
Heat Exchange in Molds for Reactive Materials
Heat Balance
Temperature Distribution
Practical Design of the Electric Heating for Thermoset Molds
References
Shrinkage
Introduction
Definition of Shrinkage
Tolerances
Causes of Shrinkage
Causes of Anisotropic Shrinkage
Causes of Distortion
Effect of Processing on Shrinkage
Supplementary Means for Predicting Shrinkage
References
Mechanical Design of Injection Molds
Mold Deformation
Analysis and Evaluation of Loads and Deformations
Evaluation of the Acting Forces
Basis for Describing the Deformation
Simple Calculation for Estimating Gap Formation
More Accurate Calculation for Estimating Gap Formation and Preventing Flash
The Superimposition Procedure
Coupled Springs as Equivalent Elements
Computation of the Wall Thickness of Cavities and Their Deformation
Presentation of Individual Cases of Loading and the Resulting Deformations
Computing the Dimensions of Cylindrical Cavities
Computing the Dimensions of Non-Circular Cavity Contours
Computing the Dimensions of Mold Plates
Procedure for Computing Dimensions of Cavity Walls under Internal Pressure
Deformation of Splits and Slides under Cavity Pressure
Split Molds
Preparing for the Deformation Calculations
Geometrical Simplifications
Tips on Choosing Boundary Conditions
Sample Calculations
Other Loads
Estimating Additional Loading
References
Shifting of Cores
Estimating the Maximum Shifting of a Core
Shifting of Circular Cores with Lateral Pinpoint Gate at the Base (Rigid Mount)
Shifting of Circular Cores with Disk Gates (Rigid Mount)
Basic Examination of the Problem
Results of the Calculations
Shifting of Cores with Various Types of Gating (Rigid Mount)
Shifting of Inserts
Analytical Calculation of Deformation of Metal Inserts Using a Cylindrical Roll Shell as an Example
Design Examples for Core Mounting and Alignment of Deep Cavities
References
Ejection
Summary of Ejection Systems
Design of the Ejection System--Ejection and Opening Forces
General Discussion
Methods for Computing the Release Forces
The Release Forces for Complex Parts Exemplified with a Fan
Numerical Computation of Demolding Processes (for Elastomer Parts)
Estimating the Opening Forces
Types of Ejectors
Design and Dimensions of Ejector Pins
Points of Action of Ejector Pins and Other Elements of Demolding
Ejector Assembly
Actuation of the Ejector Assembly
Means of Actuation and Selection of Places of Action
Means of Actuation
Special Release Systems
Double-Stage Ejection
Combined Ejection
Three-Plate Molds
Ejector Return
Ejection of Parts with Undercuts
Demolding of Parts with Undercuts by Pushing Them off
Permissible Depth of Undercuts for Snap Fits
Demolding of Threads
Demolding of Parts with Internal Threads
Molds with Unscrewing Equipment
Demolding of Parts with External Threads
Undercuts in Noncylindrical Parts
Internal Undercuts
External Undercuts
Molds with Core-Pulling Devices
References
Alignment and Changing of Molds
Function of Alignment
Alignment with the Axis of the Plasticating Unit
Internal Alignment and Interlocking
Alignment of Large Molds
Changing Molds
Systems for a Quick Change of Molds for Thermoplastics
Mold Exchanger for Elastomer Molds
References
Computer-Aided Mold Design and the Use of CAD in Mold Construction
Introduction
The Flow Pattern Method Pointed the Way Forward
Geometry Processing Marks the Key to Success
Complex Algorithms Mastered
Simulation Techniques Still Used Too Infrequently
Simpler and Less Expensive
The Next Steps already Carved out
CAD Use in Mold Design
Introduction
Principles of CAD
CAD Application in Mold-Making
Selection and Introduction of CAD Systems
References
Maintenance of Injection Molds
Advantages of Maintenance Schedules
Scheduling Mold Maintenance
Data Acquisition
Data Evaluation and Weak-Point Analysis
Computer-Based Support
Storage and Care of Injection Molds
Repairs and Alterations of Injection Molds
References
Measuring in Injection Molds
Sensors in Molds
Temperature Measurement
Measuring Melt Temperatures in Molds Using IR Sensors
Pressure Measurement
Purpose of Pressure Measurement
Sensors for Measuring Melt Pressures in Molds
Use of Sensor-Transducer Probes
Process Optimization
Monitoring Quality
References
Mold Standards
References
Temperature Controllers for Injection and Compression Molds
Function, Method, Classification
Control
Control Methods
Preconditions for Good Control Results
Selection of Equipment
Connection of Mold and Equipment--Safety Measures
Heat Carrier
Maintenance and Cleaning
References
Steps for the Correction of Molding Defects During Injection Molding
References
Special Processes--Special Molds
Injection Molding of Microstructures
Molding Technology and Process Control
Production Processes for Microcavities
In-Mold Decoration
Processing of Liquid Silicone
Evacuation
Gate
Demolding
Temperature Control
Cold-Runner Technique
Injection-Compression Molding
References
Index
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