Guide to the 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code

ISBN-10: 1568870795

ISBN-13: 9781568870793

Edition: 2003

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Samuel Knapp, EdD, is a licensed psychologist who is currently the Deputy Executive Director for the Pennsylvania Psychological Association. His interests include ethical and legal issues related to psychological practiceLeon VandeCreek, PhD, ABPP, is Past Dean and Professor in the School of Professional Psychology at Wright State University. He has been awarded the Diplomate in Clinical Psychology and he is a Fellow of several APA divisions. His interests include professional training and ethical/legal issues related to professional education and practice
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Book details

List price: $29.95
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Professional Resource Exchange, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/1/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 240
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.836
Language: English

Dedicationp. iii
Background on the Ethics Codep. 1
The Regulation of Psychologyp. 1
Before-the-Fact Controlsp. 3
After-the-Fact Controlsp. 3
Purpose of Ethics Codesp. 4
Aspirational Ethics, Enforceable Standards, Guidelines, and Policy Statementsp. 5
Limitations of Ethics Codesp. 7
APA Ethics Code Revision Processp. 8
Climate of the Revision Processp. 8
Sources of Datap. 8
Criteria for Changing the Codep. 10
Format for the Standardsp. 10
Brevityp. 10
Clarityp. 11
Use of Modifiersp. 11
Obligatory Verbsp. 11
Definitionsp. 12
Objectivity of Obligationsp. 12
Ethical Issues That Are Not in the Ethics Codep. 13
Procedures of the APA Ethics Officep. 13
Personal Conductp. 13
Policy Issuesp. 14
Specialty Areasp. 15
Decision-Making Modelsp. 16
Consider Emotional and Situational Factorsp. 17
Consider the Need for an Immediate Responsep. 19
Consider Supererogatory Goalsp. 19
Introduction and Applicabilityp. 21
Preamble and General Principlesp. 25
Preamblep. 25
General Principlesp. 25
Beneficence and Nonmaleficencep. 29
Conflicts of Interestsp. 30
Self-Carep. 30
Fidelity and Responsibilityp. 31
Collegial Concernp. 31
Integrityp. 32
Deceptionp. 32
Justicep. 33
Respect for People's Rights and Dignityp. 33
Respect for Autonomyp. 33
Considerations When Reading the Ethical Standardsp. 35
Disciplinary Grounds Against Psychologistsp. 35
Strategy for Implementing Ethical Idealsp. 36
Insensitivity and Impulsivityp. 36
Ignorancep. 37
Incomplete Documentationp. 37
Aspirational Ethics and Supererogatory Obligationsp. 38
Enforceable Ethical Standardsp. 39
Resolving Ethical Issuesp. 39
Misuse of Psychologists' Workp. 40
Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authorityp. 41
Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demandsp. 42
Informal Resolution of Ethical Violationsp. 44
Reporting Ethical Violationsp. 44
Cooperating With Ethics Committeesp. 46
Improper Complaintsp. 46
Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondentsp. 47
Competencep. 47
Boundaries of Competencep. 49
General Rule of Competencep. 49
Competence With Special Populationsp. 50
Moving Into New Areasp. 52
When Services Are Not Availablep. 53
Emerging Areasp. 54
Assuming Forensic Rolesp. 57
Providing Services in Emergenciesp. 57
Maintaining Competencep. 58
Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgmentsp. 59
Delegation of Work to Othersp. 59
Personal Problems and Conflictsp. 61
Refraining From Practice When Impairedp. 61
Seeking Assistance When Impairedp. 61
Human Relationsp. 62
Unfair Discriminationp. 63
Sexual Harassmentp. 63
Other Harassmentp. 63
Avoiding Harmp. 64
Multiple Relationshipsp. 65
General Rule on Multiple Relationshipsp. 65
Definition of Multiple Relationshipsp. 66
Handling Multiple Relationshipsp. 67
Concurrent or Consecutive Multiple Relationshipsp. 67
Overt or Subtle Multiple Relationshipsp. 68
Unavoidable Multiple Relationshipsp. 70
Forensic Multiple Relationshipsp. 73
Court Ordered Treatmentp. 73
Small Communitiesp. 74
Therapy Clients/Patients Who Need Forensic Servicesp. 74
General Principles Relevant to Multiple Relationshipsp. 75
Conflict of Interestp. 75
Third-Party Requests for Servicesp. 75
Exploitative Relationshipsp. 76
Cooperation With Other Professionalsp. 77
Informed Consentp. 78
General Rule for Informed Consentp. 78
General Rule for Assentp. 86
Forensic Informed Consentp. 87
Documentation of Informed Consentp. 88
Psychological Services Delivered To or Through Organizationsp. 89
General Rule for Organizational Informed Consentp. 89
Law on Organizational Roles Preclude Informed Consentp. 90
Interruption of Psychological Servicesp. 90
Privacy and Confidentialityp. 91
Maintaining Confidentialityp. 91
Discussing the Limits of Confidentialityp. 92
General Rule Regarding Discussions of Confidentialityp. 92
When to Discuss Limits of Confidentialityp. 92
Confidentiality Risks With Electronic Transmissionsp. 93
Recordingp. 94
Minimizing Intrusions on Privacyp. 94
Limiting Informationp. 94
Discussion of Confidential Informationp. 94
Disclosuresp. 95
Consent for Disclosuresp. 95
Disclosures Without Consentp. 95
Consultationsp. 98
Use of Confidential Information for Didactic or Other Purposesp. 98
Advertising and Other Public Statementsp. 99
Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statementsp. 100
Public Statements About Work Activitiesp. 100
Public Statements About Credentialsp. 100
Representing Degreesp. 102
Statements by Othersp. 104
Responsibility for Public Statementsp. 104
Compensation to Media Employeesp. 104
Identifying Advertisingp. 104
Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programsp. 104
Media Presentationsp. 105
Testimonialsp. 105
In-Person Solicitationp. 106
Record Keeping and Feesp. 106
Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Recordsp. 108
Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Workp. 109
Confidentiality of Recordsp. 109
Confidentiality and Databasesp. 110
Transfer of Confidential Recordsp. 110
Withholding Records for Nonpaymentp. 110
Fees and Financial Arrangementsp. 111
Agreement on Feesp. 111
Fees and Lawp. 111
Accurate Representation of Feesp. 111
Limitations on Financingp. 111
Collecting Delinquent Debtsp. 111
Barter With Clients/Patientsp. 112
Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Sourcesp. 113
Referrals and Feesp. 113
Education and Trainingp. 114
Design of Education and Training Programsp. 115
Descriptions of Education and Training Programsp. 115
Accuracy in Teachingp. 116
Accuracy in Syllabip. 116
Presenting Psychological Information Accuratelyp. 116
Student Disclosure of Personal Informationp. 117
Mandatory Individual or Group Therapyp. 118
Conditions on Mandating Individual or Group Therapyp. 118
Avoiding Multiple Relationships Among Faculty Who Provide Individual or Group Therapyp. 118
Assessing Student and Supervisee Performancep. 118
Timely and Specific Feedbackp. 118
Evaluation Based on Performancep. 119
Sexual Relationships With Students and Superviseesp. 119
Research and Publicationp. 120
Institutional Approvalp. 121
Informed Consent to Researchp. 122
General Rule on Informed Consent to Researchp. 122
Informed Consent With Intervention Researchp. 122
Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Researchp. 123
Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participantsp. 124
Protection of Subordinate Research Participantsp. 124
Research Participation as Course Requirementp. 124
Dispensing With Informed Consent for Researchp. 124
Offering Inducements for Research Participationp. 125
Excessive Inducementsp. 125
Clarifying Nature of Services as Inducementp. 125
Deception in Researchp. 125
General Rule on Deception in Researchp. 125
Deception About Pain or Distressp. 126
Explanation of Deception to Participantsp. 126
Debriefingp. 127
General Rule on Debriefingp. 127
Denying or Withholding Debriefingp. 127
Minimizing Harmp. 127
Humane Care and Use of Animals in Researchp. 127
Compliance With Laws and Standardsp. 127
Ultimate Responsibility of Psychologistsp. 127
Competence of Superviseesp. 127
Minimize Discomfortp. 128
Subjecting Animals to Painp. 128
Surgical Proceduresp. 128
Terminating an Animal's Lifep. 128
Reporting Research Resultsp. 128
Fabrication of Datap. 128
Correction of Errorsp. 128
Plagiarismp. 129
Publication Creditp. 129
General Rule on Authorshipp. 129
Awarding Credit for Authorshipp. 129
Authorship for Studentsp. 129
Duplicate Publication of Datap. 131
Sharing Research Data for Verificationp. 131
General Rule on Sharing Datap. 131
Sharing Data for Purposes Other Than Reanalysisp. 132
Reviewersp. 132
Assessmentp. 133
Bases for Assessmentsp. 133
General Rule on Bases of Opinionsp. 133
Opinions Without a Direct Examinationp. 134
Opinions Based on Record Reviewp. 134
Use of Assessmentsp. 134
General Rule on Use of Assessmentsp. 134
Relationship Between Assessment Instrument and Population Testedp. 135
Language Preference and Competencep. 135
Informed Consent in Assessmentsp. 136
General Rule on Informed Consent in Assessmentsp. 136
Informed Consent in Forensic Assessmentsp. 137
Use of Interpreters in Assessmentsp. 137
Release of Test Datap. 138
Release of Test Data Pursuant to a Client/Patient Releasep. 138
Release of Test Data Required by Lawp. 138
Test Constructionp. 139
Interpreting Assessment Resultsp. 140
Assessment by Unqualified Personsp. 140
Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Resultsp. 141
Outdated Test Resultsp. 141
Obsolete Testsp. 141
Test Scoring and Interpretation Servicesp. 142
Accurate Description of Testing Servicep. 142
Considerations in Selecting Testing Servicesp. 142
Retention of Ultimate Responsibilityp. 142
Explaining Assessment Resultsp. 143
Maintaining Test Securityp. 144
Therapyp. 145
Informed Consent to Therapyp. 146
General Rule on Informed Consent to Therapyp. 146
Informed Consent With Emerging Areasp. 146
Informed Consent With Superviseesp. 147
Therapy Involving Couples or Familiesp. 148
Clarifying Rolesp. 148
Clarifying Potentially Conflicting Rolesp. 150
Group Therapyp. 150
Providing Therapy to Those Served by Othersp. 151
Sexual Intimacies With Current Therapy Clients/Patientsp. 152
Protecting Clients/Patients From Sexual Exploitationp. 153
Sexual Intimacies With Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patientsp. 154
Therapy With Former Sexual Partnersp. 155
Sexual Intimacies With Former Therapy Clients/Patientsp. 155
No Sexual Intimacies With Former Clients/Patients for Two Yearsp. 155
Sexual Intimacies With Former Clients/Patients After Two Yearsp. 155
Interruption of Therapyp. 156
Terminating Therapyp. 156
General Rule on Terminating Therapyp. 156
Terminating Therapy When Threatenedp. 157
Pretermination Counselingp. 157
When Treatment Will Not Benefit or May Harm the Client/Patientp. 158
When the Psychologist Is Not Availablep. 160
Summaries of Specific Topicsp. 163
General Themesp. 163
Responsibilities to Othersp. 164
Competencep. 164
Experimental Treatmentsp. 165
Impairmentp. 166
Informed Consentp. 166
Informed Consent in Therapyp. 167
Informed Consent in Assessmentsp. 167
Informed Consent in Teaching and Supervisionp. 167
Informed Consent in Researchp. 168
Accuracy (Honesty)p. 168
Confidentialityp. 169
Confidentiality and Informed Consentp. 169
Storing Confidential Informationp. 170
Disclosure of Confidential Informationp. 170
Confidentiality in Researchp. 170
Roles of Psychologistsp. 171
Therapistsp. 171
Sexual Contactp. 171
Emergency Servicesp. 171
Terminationp. 172
Group Therapyp. 172
Assessmentp. 172
Supervisionp. 172
General Consultationp. 173
Organizational Consultationp. 173
Forensic Expertsp. 174
Researchp. 174
Teachingp. 175
Other Issuesp. 176
Conflicts of Interestsp. 176
Electronic Transmissionsp. 177
Protecting Diverse Groupsp. 177
Feesp. 178
Documentationp. 178
Referencesp. 179
Appendicesp. 189
APA Guidelinesp. 191
Policy Statements From the APA Ethics Committeep. 193
Definitions in the Ethics Codep. 195
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 2002p. 197
Subject Indexp. 223
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