Working Safe How to Help People Actively Care for Health and Safety

ISBN-10: 1566705649

ISBN-13: 9781566705646

Edition: 2nd 2001 (Revised)

Authors: E. Scott Geller

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Book details

List price: $71.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 5/25/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 328
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.398
Language: English

Orientation and alignment
Choosing the right approach
Selecting the best approach
Behavior-based programs
Comprehensive ergonomics
Engineering changes
Group problem solving
Government action (in Finland)
Management audits
Stress management
Poster campaigns
Personnel selection
"Near-miss" reporting
The critical human element
The folly of choosing what sounds good
Relying on research
Start with behavior
In conclusion
Starting with theory
The mission statement
Theory as a map
Relevance to occupational safety
A basic mission and theory
Behavior-based vs. person-based approaches
The person-based approach
The behavior-based approach
Considering cost effectiveness
Integrating approaches
In conclusion
Paradigm shifts for total safety
The old three Es
Three new Es
Shifting paradigms
From government regulation to corporate responsibility
From failure oriented to achievement oriented
From outcome focused to behavior focused
From top-down control to bottom-up involvement
From rugged individualism to interdependent teamwork
From a piecemeal to a systems approach
From fault finding to fact finding
From reactive to proactive
From quick fix to continuous improvement
From priority to value
Enduring values
In conclusion
Human barriers to safety
The complexity of people
Fighting human nature
Dimensions of human nature
Cognitive failures
Capture errors
Description errors
Loss-of-activation errors
Mode errors
Mistakes and calculated risks
Interpersonal factors
Peer influence
Power of authority
In conclusion
Sensation, perception, and perceived risk
Selective sensation or perception
Biased by context
Biased by our past
Relevance to achieving a Total Safety Culture
Perceived risk
Real vs. perceived risk
The power of choice
Familiarity breeds complacency
The power of publicity
Sympathy for victims
Understood and controllable hazards
Acceptable consequences
Sense of fairness
Risk compensation
Implications of risk compensation
In conclusion
Stress vs. distress
What is stress?
Constructive or destructive?
The eye of the beholder
Identifying stressors
Coping with stressors
Person factors
Fit for stressors
Social factors
Attributional bias
The fundamental attribution error
The self-serving bias
In conclusion
Behavior-based psychology
Basic principles
Primacy of behavior
Reducing at-risk behaviors
Increasing safe behaviors
Learning from experience
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Observational learning
Overlapping types of learning
In conclusion
Identify critical behaviors
The DO IT process
Defining target behaviors
What is behavior?
Describing behaviors
Multiple behaviors
Observing behavior
A personal example
Using the critical behavior checklist
Two basic approaches
Starting small
Observing multiple behaviors
In conclusion
Behavioral safety analysis
Reducing behavioral discrepancy
Can the task be simplified?
Is a quick fix available?
Is safe behavior punished?
Is at-risk behavior rewarded?
Are extra consequences used effectively?
Is there a skill discrepancy?
What kind of training is needed?
Is the person right for the job?
In summary
Behavior-based safety training
Intervention and the flow of behavior change
Three types of behavior
Three kinds of intervention strategies
The flow of behavior change
Accountability vs. responsibility
In conclusion
Behavior-based intervention
Intervening with activators
Specify behavior
Maintain salience with novelty
Warning beepers: a common working example
Vary the message
Changeable signs
Worker-designed safety slogans
Involve the target audience
The "Flash for Life"
The "Airline Lifesaver"
Activate close to response opportunity
Buckle-up road signs
Implicate consequences
Incentives vs. disincentives
Setting goals for consequences
In conclusion
Intervening with consequences
The power of consequences
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic consequences
Internal vs. external consequences
Managing consequences for safety
The case against negative consequences
Discipline and involvement
"Dos" and "don'ts" of safety rewards
Doing it wrong
Doing it right
An exemplary incentive/reward program
Safety thank-you cards
In conclusion
Intervening as a behavior-change agent
Intervening as a safety coach
"C" for care
"O" for observe
"A" for analyze
"C" for communicate
"H" for help
In conclusion
Intervening with supportive conversation
The power of conversation
The art of improving conversation
Do not look back
Seek commitment
Stop and listen
Ask questions first
Transition from nondirective to directive
Beware of bias
Recognizing safety acghievement
Recognize during or directly after safe behavior
Make recognition personal for both parties
Connect specific behavior with general higher-level praise
Deliver recognition privately and one-on-one
Let recognition stand alone and soak in
Use tangibles for symbolic value only
Secondhand recognition has special advantages
Receiving recognition well
Avoid denial and disclaimer statements
Listen attentively with genuine appreciation
Relive recognition later for self-motivation
Show sincere appreciation
Recognize the person for recognizing you
Embrace the reciprocity principle
Ask for recognition when deserved but not forthcoming
In conclusion
Actively caring for safety
Understanding actively caring
What is actively caring?
Three ways to actively care
Why categorize actively caring behaviors?
An illustrative anecdote
A hierarchy of needs
The psychology of actively caring
Lessons from research
A consequence analysis of actively caring
The power of context
Context at work
In conclusion
The person-based approach to actively caring
Actively caring from the inside
Person traits vs. states
Actively caring states
Actively caring and emotional intelligence
Safety, emotions, and impulse control
Nurturing emotional intelligence
In conclusion
Increasing actively caring behaviors
Enhancing the actively caring person states
Personal control
Directly increasing actively caring behaviors
Education and training
Consequences for actively caring
The reciprocity principle
Commitment and consistency
In conclusion
Putting it all together
Promoting high-performance teamwork
Cultivating high-performance teamwork
Selecting team members
Clarify the assignment
Establish a team charter
Develop an action plan
Make it happen
Evaluate team performance
Disband, restructure, or renew the team
In conclusion
Evaluating for continuous improvement
Measuring the right stuff
Developing a comprehensive evaluation process
What to measure?
Evaluating environmental conditions
Evaluating work practices
Evaluating person factors
Evaluating costs and benefits
You can't measure everything
In conclusion
Obtaining and maintaining involvement
Starting the process
Management support
Creating a safety steering team
Developing evaluation procedures
Setting up an education and training process
Sustaining the process
Follow-up instruction/booster sessions
Troubleshooting and fine-tuning
Cultivating continuous support
Where are the safety leaders?
Overcoming resistance to change
In conclusion
Reviewing the principles
The 50 principles
In conclusion
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