Principles and Practice of Toxicology in Public Health

ISBN-10: 1449645267

ISBN-13: 9781449645267

Edition: 2nd 2014

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Description:

This is the ideal text for a first course in toxicology for the public health student. In four sections, it offers an introduction to the field, as well as the basics of toxicology principles, systemic toxicity, and toxicology practice. The text is immediately readable for the student with little technical background.The Second Edition has been greatly expanded with coverage of many new topics in existing chapters, as well as nine new chapters that examine: reproductive toxicity, endocrine toxicity, blood toxicity, environmental toxicology, industrial toxicology, occupational toxicology, regulatory toxicology, clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology.Instructor Resources: Instructor Manual, PowerPoint, TestBank
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Book details

List price: $134.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Publication date: 8/9/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 522
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.332
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgments
What's New in the Second Edition
Introduction
Toxicology and Its Roots as a Science
Introduction
Toxic Chemicals
Epidemiological Studies
Causality
The Roots of Toxicology
The Evolution of Toxicology
Bibliography
Chemical Properties and Hazardous Chemicals Information Resources
Introduction
Elements, Atoms, and Compounds
Mixtures, Suspensions, and Aerosols
Identifying Chemicals
Physical Properties of Chemicals
Some Web-Based Resources
Regulatory Agencies That Maintain Lists for Hazardous Chemicals
Regional Poison Control Centers
Toxicity and the Factors That Modify Toxic Responses
Cellular Basis of Toxicity
Spectrum of Adverse Effects
Factors That Modify Toxicity
Toxicogenomics and Its Importance in Public Health
Bibliography
Biological Poisons: Plant and Animal Toxins
Introduction
Bacterial Toxins
Fungal Toxins
Algal Toxins
Higher Plant Toxins
Animal Toxins
Bibliography
Environmental Pollutants and Their Fate
Introduction
Unfortunate Lessons Learned
Pollution Versus Contamination
Environmental Chemistry
The Environment: Compartments and Ecosystems
Toxicity in a Population
Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds
Conclusion
Bibliography
Toxicology Principles
Dose and Response
Introduction
Relating Dose to Response
Dose-Response Graphs
How Individuals May Respond in a Population
The Dose Must Be Referenced to Time
Dose Standardization Based on Body Weight
Toxicity Rating
Referencing Dose to Environmental Media
Bibliography
Absorption of Toxicants and Models of Disposition
Toxicant Entry into the Body
Cell Membranes
Movement of Toxicants Across Cell Membranes
Skin Absorption
Gastrointestinal Absorption
Respiratory Absorption
Other Exposure Routes
Chemical Disposition and Toxicokinetics
Models of Disposition
Bibliography
Distribution, Storage, and Elimination of Toxicants
Introduction
Body Water and Volume of Distribution
Plasma Binding, Blood Flow, and Barriers to Distribution
Toxicant Storage
Toxicant Elimination
Urinary Excretion
Fecal Elimination
Pulmonary Elimination
Minor Routes of Elimination
Bibliography
Biotransformation
Introduction
Enzymes
Tissues Where Biotransformation Proceeds
Reactions and Cytochrome P450
Reactions
Bibliography
Chemical-Induced Mutagenesis
DNA and Mutations
Mutations and Apoptosis
Tests for DNA Damage and Mutagenicity
Examples of Chemical Mutagens
Bibliography
Chemicals and Cancer
Introduction
Mutations in Genes That Regulate Cell Growth and Differentiation
Oncogenes
History of Chemical Carcinogenesis
Characteristics of Cancer Cells
Benign and Malignant Tumors
Tumor Angiogenesis, Metastasis, and Staging
Classification Systems for Carcinogens by Agency
Carcinogen Classification
Exposure to Carcinogens
Chemical-Induced Carcinogenesis Is a Multistep Process
Informing the Public About Carcinogens
Bibliography
Systemic Toxicity
The Role of the Immune System
Introduction
Chemical Exposures
Immune Responses
Organs of the Immune System
Cells of the Immune System
Antibodies
Immunological Disorders
Immunosuppression by Toxicants
Examples of Chemical-Induced Immunological Disorders
Experimental Immunological Testing
Bibliography
Skin
Introduction
Structure of the Skin
Skin Absorption of Chemicals
Skin Toxicity: Local Effects
Bibliography
The Liver and Kidneys
The Liver
The Kidneys
Bibliography
The Cardiovascular System
General Considerations
Cardiac Physiology
Cell Types
Cardiac Electrophysiology
Assessing Cardiac Function
Effects of Toxicants on the Cardiovascular System
Blood vessels
Blood
Bibliography
The Respiratory System
General Considerations
Nomenclature of Airborne Toxicants
Functional Divisions of the Respiratory System
Respiratory System Injury
Exposures to Air Pollutants
Defense Strategies
Types of Injury
Bibliography
The Nervous System
General Considerations
Cells of the Nervous System
The Blood-Brain Barrier
Neuron Action Potential and Synaptic Function
Neurotoxicity
Bibliography
The Endocrine System
General Considerations
The Parts of the Endocrine System
The Reproductive System
Bibliography
Toxicology Practice
The Practice of Toxicology
Introduction
Categories of Toxicologists
Expectations and Requirements for Toxicologists
Toxicologists as Expert Witnesses
Websites
Bibliography
Regulatory Considerations
Standards, Guidelines, and Regulatory Agencies
Public Awareness and Public Outrage
Regulatory and Nonregulatory Agencies: Their Role in Protecting the Public from Chemical Exposures
Industrial Versus Environmental Standards
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
The National Toxicology Program
Consumer Product Safety Commission
Websites
Bibliography
Toxicity Testing
The Nature and Scope of Toxicity Testing
Toxicity Test Objectives and Considerations
Animal Use and Extrapolation to Humans
Practical Aspects of Measuring Toxicity Experimentally
Acute Local Toxicity: Tests for Irritancy and Corrosiveness
Acute Systemic Toxicity: Use and Limitations of LD<sub>50</sub>
Efficacy, Toxicity, and Lethality
Other Examples of Prechronic Toxicity Testing in Laboratory Animals
Chronic Toxicity Testing in Laboratory Animals
Human Studies
Alternative Toxicity Testing Methods
Examples of In Vitro Tests for Several Toxicological Endpoints
Conclusion
Websites
Bibliography
Example of a Template for a Subchronic Toxicity Study in Rodents for FDA Review
Uses and Limitations of Product Labeling for Public Safety
The Purpose of Product Labeling
Use of Product Labels by Consumers
Limitations of Product Labels
Federal Requirements
FIFRA and Pesticides
Pesticide Product Labeling
Product Labels Are Not Material Safety Data Sheets
Federal Food and Drug Administration Requirements for Labeling
Websites
Toxicology Principles in the Management of Acute Poisonings
Introduction
Management of Acute Poisoning
Route of Exposure Influences Toxicity: An Example Using Cocaine
Intentional and Unintentional Exposures in the American Population
Inhalant Use
Toxicities Associated with "Street Drugs"
Websites
Bibliography
Risk Assessment and the Perception of Risk
Overview of Risk
Risk Assessment
Cancer Risk Assessment
Ecological Risk Assessment
Toxicant Interaction and Chemical Mixtures
Responding to Public Concerns
Websites
Bibliography
Making Informed Decisions
Difficulties in Decision Making
Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process
Making the Best Decisions
The CRAM Report
Websites
Bibliography
Glossary of Terms
Index
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