How to Read a Paper The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine

ISBN-10: 1444334360

ISBN-13: 9781444334364

Edition: 4th 2010

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Book details

List price: $33.99
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 5/7/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 256
Size: 5.25" wide x 8.25" long x 0.25" tall
Weight: 0.946
Language: English

Foreword to the First Edition
Preface to the First Edition: do you need to read this book?
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Why read papers at all?
Does 'evidence-based medicine' simply mean 'reading papers in medical journals'?
Why do people sometimes groan when you mention EBM?
Before you start: formulate the problem
Searching the literature
What are you looking for?
Levels upon levels of evidence
Synthesised sources: systems, summaries and syntheses
Pre-appraised sources: synopses of systematic reviews and primary studies
Specialised resources
Primary studies - tackling the jungle
One-stop shopping: federated search engines
Asking for help and asking around
Getting your bearings - what is this paper about?
The science of 'trashing' papers
Three preliminary question to get your bearings
Randomised controlled trials
Cohort studies
Case-control studies
Cross-sectional surveys
Case reports
The traditional hierarchy of evidence
A note on ethical considerations
Assessing methodological quality
Was the study original?
Whom is the study about?
Was the design of the study sensible?
Was systematic bias avoided or minimised?
Was assessment 'blind'?
Were preliminary statistical questions addressed?
Summing up
Statistics for the non-statistician
How can non-statisticians evaluate statistical tests?
Have the authors set the scene correctly?
Paired data, tails, and outliers
Correlation, regression and causation
Probability and confidence
The bottom line
Papers that report trials of drug treatments and other simple interventions
'Evidence' and marketing
Making decisions about therapy
Surrogate endpoints
What information to expect in a paper describing an RCT: the CONSORT statement
Getting worthwhile evidence out of a pharmaceutical representative
Papers that report trials of complex interventions
Complex interventions
Ten questions to ask about a paper describing a complex intervention
Papers that report diagnostic or screening tests
Ten men in the dock
Validating diagnostic tests against a gold standard
Ten questions to ask about a paper that claims to validate a diagnostic or screening test
Likelihood ratios
Clinical prediction rules
Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses)
When is a review systematic?
Evaluating systematic reviews
Meta-analysis for the non-statistician
Explaining heterogeneity
New approaches to systematic review
Papers that tell you what to do (guidelines)
The great guidelines debate
How can we help ensure that evidence-based guidelines are followed?
Ten questions to ask about a clinical guideline
Papers that tell you what things cost (economic analyses)
What is an economic analysis?
Measuring the costs and benefits of health interventions
Ten questions to ask about an economic analysis
Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research)
What is qualitative research?
Evaluating papers that describe qualitative research
Papers that report questionnaire research
The rise and rise of questionnaire research
Ten questions to ask about a paper describing a questionnaire study
Papers that report quality improvement case studies
What are quality improvement studies - and how should we research them?
Ten questions to ask about a paper describing a quality improvement initiative
Getting evidence into practice
Why are health professionals slow to adopt evidence-based practice?
How much avoidable suffering is caused by failing to implement evidence?
How can we influence health professionals' behaviour to promote evidence-based practice?
What does an 'evidence-based organisation' look like?
How can we help organisations develop the appropriate structures, systems and values to support evidence-based practice?
Why is it so hard to get evidence into policymaking?
Checklists for finding, appraising and implementing evidence
Assessing the effects of an intervention
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