Paul M. Bingham earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, where he also continued to develop his fascination with fundamental unanswered questions about how humans evolved. During his 27-year career on the faculty of Stony Brook University, he has continued to explore human origins while also contributing to fundamental cell and molecular biology, including the discovery of the P element transposon and new approaches to cancer therapy. Joanne Souza is currently a research psychologist and a faculty member at Stony Brook University. She also was a successful business consultant in communications in the health and education markets. In the last seven years she has continued to pursue her life-long research interest in human behavior, evolution, and history.