Robert Hughes was born on July 28, 1938 in Sydney, Australia. He attended St. Ignatius College and Sydney University before embarking on a career as a freelance writer. In 1970, he became the art critic for Time magazine. Hughes garnered wide acclaim for his book and television series The Shock of the New. Chronicling Hughes's vast knowledge and experience with modern art, The Shock of the New presents the author's views and opinions of many facets of art including contemporary architecture. Hughes's other ground-breaking books include American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America and Culture of Complaint: The Fraying of America. In these, Hughes presents his own unique brand of criticism, not merely on art, but also on American politics. Everyone from Jesse Helms to Ronald Reagan undergoes analysis, and the state of politics in the late 20th century is often lamented.