Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011. Gates served for 26 years in the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council, and under President George H. W. Bush was Director of Central Intelligence. Gates was also an officer in the United States Air Force and during the early part of his military career, he was recruited by the CIA. After leaving the CIA, Gates became president of Texas A&M University and was a member of several corporate boards. He served as a member of the Iraq Study Group, the bipartisan commission co-chaired by James A. Baker III and Lee H. Hamilton, that studied the lessons of the Iraq War. Gates has won many honorary doctorates from universities, including an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Yale University; his government awards include the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In January 2014, Gates published his autobiography, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War, which quickly became a New York Times bestseller.