Cognitive Sciences An Interdisciplinary Approach

ISBN-10: 141299716X

ISBN-13: 9781412997164

Edition: 2nd 2014

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This engagingly written introduction to the cognitive sciences examines the historical and contemporary issues and research findings of the core cognitive science disciplines, including cognitive psychology, neuroscience, language, philosophy, and artificial intelligence. For each of the core disciplines of cognitive science, the historical development and classic research studies are presented in one chapter and current research development and issues follow in a second chapter. The student is given insight into the way each discipline has contributed to the growth of cognitive science and what directions research is taking in the future. This text assumes no background on the part of the reader.
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Book details

List price: $119.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/17/2013
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 440
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.244
Language: English

Paul Li is a Lecturer in Cognitive Science at the University of California, Berkeley. Originally from San Francisco, Paul earned his BA in cognitive neuroscience at UC Berkeley and completed his graduate studies in neuroscience at Columbia University, New York. He has written several excerpts for Scientific American Mind and is currently conducting research in neurodegenerative diseases at the Gladstone Institute in San Francisco. He has been invited to lecture at several universities, including Seoul National University and Stanford University. When not working, Paul enjoys reading a good book, exploring new coffee shops, and traveling.

<span style="COLOR: #1a1a1a"> <p>Carolyn Sobel is Professor Emerita of Linguistics, Hofstra University, New York. She held several positions while teaching there, including that of Area Coordinator (the equivalent of Department Chair) in both the Social Sciences and Creative Studies areas at Hofstra University’s New College. Dr. Sobel received her BA from Swarthmore College, where she majored in French and minored in psychology, and her Ph.D. in linguistics from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Given her interest in language and the brain, she ultimately found it a short step from linguistics to cognitive science, a subject she introduced to New College. Courses she has taught range from linguistics to the structure of English words and sentences, and from cognitive science to poetry (she is also a published poet). She currently lives on a hill in central Vermont with her husband, two cats, and two dogs. When not working she enjoys volunteer work and visiting with her children and extended family. </p></span>

Introduction: Raising the Questions
About the Authors
Early Approaches to the Study of Human Cognition
Accounting for Differences
Localization of Function: Early Approaches
Localization of Function: More Recent Approaches
The Emergence of Modern Psychology
Measuring Differences
Sensory Discrimination
Approaches to the Study of Intelligence
Sternberg's Approach
Gardner's Approach
The End of the Beginning
The Approach of Cognitive Science
Concepts and Categories
Sorts of Sorting
Experimental Evidence for Categories
Category Loss
Mental Representation
The Representation of Concepts
The Representation of Propositions
Experimental Evidence for Propositional Representation
Propositional Networks
Experimental Evidence for Propositional Networks
The Notion of Scripts
Menial Imagery
Experimental Evidence for Mental Imagery
Problem Solving
Research in Problem Solving
Systems of Memory Storage
The Modal Model: A Multistore Approach
Tulving's Model
Constructive Memory
Exploring the Brain
The Brain Itself
Neurons and the Brain They Call Home
Brain Research in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries
Hughlings-Jackson, Fritsch and Hitzig and Ferrier
Franz and Lashley
The Living Human Brain: The Neurosurgeons
Early Research: Bartholow and Cashing
Mid-20th-Century Research: Penfield and Hebb
The 1960s and Beyond: Hubel, Wiesel, and Sperry
Modern Technology and Research
Brain Mapping: Structure Versus Function
Brain Mapping Techniques: Structural
X-Ray Techniques
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Brain Mapping Techniques: Functional
Electrophysiological Techniques
Blood-Flow Techniques
Brain Mapping Research
Concepts and Categories
Setting the Stage for Artificial Intelligence
The Beginnings
Setting the Stage
Historical Background: 19th Century
The Jacquard Loom
Charles Babbage: His Difference and Analytical Engines
Historical Background: 20th Century
Alan Turing
John von Neumann
The Machine Performs
Man versus Machine
Intelligent Machines: Early Programs
Logic and the Logic Theorist
The General Problem Solver
Expert Systems
Chess: Deep Blue Shorn Its Mettle
The Soar Project
The Language Challenge: Natural Language Processing
Machine Translation
Natural Language Processing
Semantic Information Processing: SHRDLU
Knowledge Representation: The Notion of Frames
Script Applier Mechanism (SAM)
Machine Learning: Connectionism and the Neural Network
Neural Networks
Early Developments in Neural Net Research
Automatic Speech Recognition
Speech Synthesis
Robot Vision
Artificial life: Animals
Project Cog
Project Domo
Projects Kismet, Nexi, Repliee
Some Answers; More Questions
What Linguistics Is About
The Uniqueness of Human Language
Characteristics of Human language
The Rules of Language
Approaches in the Field of Linguistics
Early Approaches: Panini and Grimm
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf
Ferdinand de Saussure
Behaviorism: John B. Watson and B. R Skinner
The Return of the Cognitive: Contemporary linguistics
Noam Chomsky
The Relevance of the Rules to Cognitive Science
The Role of Linguistics in Cognitive Science
Language Acquisition
First-Language Acquisition
Stages in First-Language Acquisition
The Social Aspect of First-Language Acquisition
Second-Language Acquisition
Language Deprivation
Language Acquisition in Abused or Feral Children
Language Acquisition in the Deaf and Hearing Impaired
Language Loss (Language Attrition)
Causes of Languages Loss
The Role of Computational Linguistics
Computational Modeling of Language
Language and Thought
Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Theory
Human Evolution
Evolution of the Human Mind
Intelligence from an EP Perspective
Localization of Function from an EP Perspective: Modularity
Categorization from an EP perspective
Memory from an EP Perspective
Language from an EP Perspective
Philosophical Issues in Cognitive Science
Philosophy's Role in Cognitive Science
Philosophy and Cognitive Psychology
Epistemology: How We Know What We Know
Determinism and Free Will
The Mind-Body Problem
Who Are We?
Philosophy and Neuroscience
The Mind-Body Problem Revisited
Split-Brain Research Revisited
Memory Revisited
Free Will Revisited
Philosophy and Linguistics
The Meaning of Words and the Framing of Concepts
The Truth Value of Sentences
Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence
Philosophy and Consciousness
The Easy Problem-and the Hard One
Consciousness as an Emergent Property
How Might a Machine Become Conscious?
Embodied Cognition
A Note for the Future
Conclusion: Coming Full Circle
Author Index
Subject Index
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