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The What and the Why of Statistics | |

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Introduction | |

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The Research Process | |

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Asking Research Questions | |

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The Role of Theory | |

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Formulating the Hypotheses | |

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Independent and Dependent Variables: Causality | |

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Independent and Dependent Variables: Guidelines | |

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Collecting Data | |

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Levels of Measurement | |

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Nominal Level of Measurement | |

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Ordinal Level of Measurement | |

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Interval-Ratio Level of Measurement | |

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Cumulative Property of Levels of Measurement | |

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Levels of Measurement of Dichotomous Variables | |

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Discrete and Continuous Variables | |

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Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses | |

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Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | |

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Evaluating the Hypotheses | |

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Looking at Social Differences | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS Problem | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Organization of Information: Frequency Distributions | |

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Introduction | |

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Frequency Distributions | |

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Proportions and Percentages | |

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Percentage Distributions | |

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Comparisons | |

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Statistics in Practice: Labor Force Participation of Latinos | |

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The Construction of Frequency Distributions | |

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Frequency Distributions for Nominal Variables Frequency Distributions for Ordinal | |

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Variables Frequency Distributions for Interval-Ratio Variables | |

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Cumulative Distributions | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables | |

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Basic Principles | |

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Conclusion | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Graphic Presentation | |

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Introduction | |

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The Pie Chart: Race and Ethnicity of the Elderly | |

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The Bar Graph: Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly | |

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The Statistical Map: The Geographic Distribution of the Elderly | |

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The Histogram | |

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Statistics in Practice: The "Graying" of America | |

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The Frequency Polygon | |

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Time Series Charts | |

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Distortions in Graphs | |

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Shrinking and Stretching the Axes: Visual Confusion Distortions with Picture Graphs | |

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Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Introduction | |

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The Mode | |

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The Median | |

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Finding the Median in Sorted Data | |

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Finding the Median in Frequency Distributions | |

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Statistics in Practice: Changes in Age at First Marriage | |

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Locating Percentiles in a Frequency Distribution | |

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The Mean | |

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Using a Formula to Calculate the Mean | |

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Understanding Some Important Properties of the Arithmetic Mean | |

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The Shape of the Distribution: Television and Education | |

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The Symmetrical Distribution | |

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The Positively Skewed Distribution | |

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The Negatively Skewed Distribution | |

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Guidelines for Identifying the Shape of a Distribution | |

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Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency | |

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Level of Measurement | |

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Skewed Distribution | |

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Symmetrical Distribution | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Measures of Variability | |

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Introduction | |

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The Importance of Measuring Variability | |

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The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV): A Brief Introduction | |

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Steps for Calculating the IQV | |

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Statistics in Practice: Diversity in U.S. Society | |

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The Range | |

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The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Populations | |

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The Box Plot | |

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The Variance and the Standard Deviation: Changes in the Elderly Population | |

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Calculating the Deviation from the Mean | |

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Calculating the Variance and the Standard Deviation | |

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Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Gender Differences in Caregiving | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Relationships Between Two Variables: Cross-Tabulation | |

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Introduction | |

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Independent and Dependent Variables | |

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How to Construct a Bivariate Table: Race and Home Ownership | |

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How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table | |

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Calculating Percentages Within Each Category of the Independent Variable | |

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Comparing the Percentages Across Different Categories of the Independent Variable | |

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How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships Between Variables | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Medicaid Use Among the Elderly | |

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The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship | |

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The Existence of the Relationship | |

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The Strength of the Relationship | |

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The Direction of the Relationship | |

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Elaboration | |

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Testing for Nonspuriousness: Firefighters and Property Damage | |

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An Intervening Relationship: Religion and Attitude Toward Abortion | |

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Conditional Relationships: More on Abortion | |

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The Limitations of Elaboration | |

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Statistics in Practice: Family Support for the Transition from High School | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Measures of Association for Nominal and Ordinal Variables | |

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Introduction | |

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A Guide to Interpretation | |

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Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables | |

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A Method for Calculating Lambda | |

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Some Guidelines for Calculating Lambda | |

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Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association | |

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Analyzing the Association Between Ordinal Variables: Job Security and Job Satisfaction | |

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Comparison of Pairs | |

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Types of Pairs | |

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Counting Pairs | |

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Same Order Pairs (Ns) | |

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Inverse Order Pairs (Nd) | |

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Calculating Gamma | |

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Positive and Negative Gamma | |

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Gamma as a PRE Measure | |

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Statistics in Practice: Trauma by Social Class | |

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Using Ordinal Measures with Dichotomous Variables | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Worldview and Abortion Beliefs | |

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Examining the Data | |

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Interpreting the Data | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS Problems | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Regression and Correlation | |

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Introduction | |

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The Scatter Diagram | |

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Linear Relations and Prediction Rules | |

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Constructing Straight-Line Graphs | |

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Finding the Best-Fitting Line | |

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Computing a and b for the Prediction Equation | |

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Interpreting a and b | |

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Statistics in Practice: GNP and Willingness to Volunteer Time for Environmental Protection | |

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Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions | |

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Prediction Errors | |

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Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r) | |

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Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Social Inequality | |

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Statistics in Practice: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings | |

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Multiple Regression | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Sampling | |

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Introduction | |

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Properties of the Normal Distribution | |

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Empirical Distributions Approximating the Normal Distribution | |

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An Example: Final Grades in Statistics | |

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Areas Under the Normal Curve | |

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Interpreting the Standard Deviation | |

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Standard (Z) Scores | |

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Transforming a Raw Score into a Z Score | |

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Transforming a Z Score into a Raw Score | |

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The Standard Normal Distribution | |

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The Standard Normal Table | |

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The Structure of the Standard Normal Table | |

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Transforming Z Scores into Proportions (or Percentages) | |

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Transforming Proportions (or Percentages) into Z Scores | |

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Working with Percentiles | |

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A Final Note | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Estimation | |

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Introduction | |

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Aims of Sampling | |

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Some Basic Principles of Probability | |

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Probability Sampling | |

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The Simple Random Sample | |

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The Systematic Random Sample | |

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The Stratified Random Sample | |

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The Concept of the Sampling Distribution | |

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The Population | |

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The Sample | |

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The Dilemma | |

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The Sampling Distribution | |

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The Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |

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An Illustration | |

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Review | |

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The Mean of the Sampling Distribution | |

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The Standard Error of the Mean | |

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The Central Limit Theorem | |

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The Size of the Sample | |

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The Significance of the Sampling Distribution and the Central Limit Theorem | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS Problem | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Testing Hypotheses | |

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Introduction | |

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Estimation Defined | |

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Reasons for Estimation | |

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Point and Interval Estimation | |

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Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means | |

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Determining the Confidence Interval | |

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Reducing Risk | |

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Estimating Sigma | |

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Sample Size and Confidence Intervals | |

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Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings | |

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Confidence Intervals for Proportions | |

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Procedures for Estimating Proportions | |

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Increasing the Sample Size | |

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Statistics in Practice: Religiosity and Support for Stem-Cell Research | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Testing Hypotheses | |

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Introduction | |

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Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing | |

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Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses | |

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The Research Hypothesis (H1) | |

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The Null Hypothesis (H0) | |

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More About Research Hypotheses: One- and Two-Tailed Tests | |

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Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha | |

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The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary | |

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Errors in Hypothesis Testing | |

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The t Statistic and Estimating the Standard Error | |

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The t Distribution and Degrees of Freedom | |

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Comparing the t and Z Statistics | |

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Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of White Women | |

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Testing Hypotheses About Two Samples | |

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The Assumption of Independent Samples | |

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Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses | |

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The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means | |

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Estimating the Standard Error | |

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Calculating the Estimated Standard Error | |

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The t Statistic | |

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Calculating the Degrees of Freedom for a Difference Between Means Test | |

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The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary | |

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Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of Asian American Men | |

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Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Two Sample Proportions | |

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Statistics in Practice: Equalizing Income and Race | |

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Statistics in Practice: Equalizing Income and Political Views | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Statistical Hypothesis Testing | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS DemonstrationS | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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The Chi-Square Test | |

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Introduction | |

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The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test | |

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The Concept of Statistical Independence | |

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The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square | |

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The Assumptions | |

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Stating the Research and the Null Hypotheses | |

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The Concept of Expected Frequencies | |

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Calculating the Expected Frequencies | |

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Calculating the Obtained Chi-Square | |

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The Sampling Distribution of Chi-Square | |

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Determining the Degrees of Freedom | |

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Review | |

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The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance | |

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Statistics in Practice: Social Class and Health | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Sibling Cooperation and Academic Achievement | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Analysis of Variance | |

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Introduction | |

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Understanding Analysis of Variance | |

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The structure of hypothesis testing with ANOVA | |

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The five steps in hypothesis testing: A summary | |

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Testing the Significance of r2 using ANOVA | |

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ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regression | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Self Image and Ethnic Identification | |

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Reading the Research Literature: Effects of authority structures and gender on interaction in task groups | |

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Main Points | |

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Key Terms | |

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SPSS Demonstration | |

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SPSS ProblemS | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Index | |

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End of Chapter answers, odd numbered questions | |