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INTRODUCTION TO SEMIMICRO QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS by C. H. SORUM Professor of Chemistry University of Wisconsin New York PRENTICE-HALL, INC. 1949 INTRODUCTION TO SEMIMICRO QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS. Formerly INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS. COPYRIGHT, 1949, BY PRENTICE-HALL, INC. 70 Fifth Avenue, New York ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, BY MIMEO GRAPH OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT PERMIS SION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHERS. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Preface This manual has been written for the use of students who wish to take a one-semester course in qualitative analysis and who have a background of one semester of general chemistry.… Although designed particularly for use in a sequence where qualitative analysis serves as the laboratory work for the sec ond semester of general chemistry, the book can also be used when qualitative analysis falls in the third quarter or third semester of a sequence in which general chemistry, with con ventional laboratory work, occupies the first two quarters or semesters. As the title suggests, this manual comprises an introduction to qualitative analysis and does not attempt a complete pres entation of the subject. However, experience over a period of twelve years has demonstrated that a student who has mas tered this introduction is well equipped to go into those ad vanced courses requiring an understanding of, and a familiarity with, the principles and techniques of qualitative analysis. Only 21 metals and 13 acids are considered. Furthermore, only those aspects of the chemistry of the cations and anions which have direct bearing on the behavior of these cations and anions in the course of theirseparation and identification are presented. As a consequence, the content of the manual can be completed in one semester. Detailed discussions and explanations are presented largely in the form of notes, which are given directly after the pro cedure or procedures in which they are applied. With this arrangement, the student gets the explanation of an experi mental behavior when that behavior is noted. The author wishes to express his indebtedness to An Intro duction to Qualitative Analysis, by Sorum and Walton, which is the macro counterpart of this book. He wishes, also, to vi PREFACE express his appreciation for the help that he has received from all members of the General Chemistry Staff at the University of Wisconsin, particularly from G. A. Hall, M. L. Holt, E. M. Larsen, and H. L. Ritter. C. H. SORUM Madison, Wisconsin Note to Instructors A group of questions will be found at the end of each chap ter. These can be used as the basis for an oral review of each chapters content or they can be assigned as homework. Only a few mathematical problems are included if the detailed aspects of the solubility product principle are to be covered, the authors Problems for General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis or some comparable problem book should be used as a companion text. The experimental procedures and specific tests have been checked and rechecked if the directions are followed with reasonable care, good results will be obtained. Emphasis should be made that the entire success of the copper-arsenic group analysis depends on having good-quality ammonium polysulfide. It is easy to prepare and will keep almost indefi nitely if stored in small, well-stoppered bottles. The difficultyinvolved in using ammonium polysulfide results from the fact that when it is exposed to air, as when placed in desk reagent bottles, it slowly decomposes. This decomposition is easily detected by the deposition of sulfur, whereupon the reagent should immediately be replaced. Every instructor faces the problem of how best to present equations for reactions that take place. Since those in quali tative analysis are largely ionic, one might well argue that ionic equations should be used...