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Chocolate Science and Technology

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ISBN-10: 1405199067

ISBN-13: 9781405199063

Edition: 2010

Authors: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

List price: $158.00
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Description:

This book provides an overview of the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption.It covers cocoa cultivation and production with special attention paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the…    
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Book details

List price: $158.00
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 4/13/2010
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 296
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgements
About the Author
Chocolate production and consumption patterns
History of cocoa and chocolate
World production and consumption of cocoa and chocolate products
World production and consumption of cocoa
World cocoa prices
World consumption of chocolate products
World consumption of premium chocolate products
Fairtrade cocoa and chocolate in modern confectionery industry
Future of Fairtrade cocoa and confectionery industry
The concept of this book
Cocoa cultivation, bean composition and chocolate flavour precursor formation and character
Introduction
Cocoa cultivation and practices
Cultivation of cocoa
Flowering and pod development
Harvesting and pod opening
Cocoa diseases and pests and their influence on chocolate quality
Bean composition and flavour precursor formation
Chemical composition of the bean
Polyphenols and chocolate flavour quality
Effects of proteins and sugars on flavour precursor formation
Microbial succession and enzymatic activities during flavour precursor generation in cocoa fermentation
Effect of genotype on cocoa bean flavours
Flavour development during post-harvest treatments of cocoa
Fermentation processes
Drying
Conclusion
Industrial chocolate manufacture processes and factors influencing quality
Introduction
Cocoa processing and technology
Bean selection and quality criteria
Cleaning, breaking and winnowing
Sterilisation
Alkalisation
Roasting
Nib grinding and liquor treatment
Liquor pressing
Cake grinding (kibbling)
Cocoa powder production
Chocolate manufacturing processes
Mixing
Refining
Conching
Tempering, lipid crystallisation and continuous phase character during chocolate manufacture
Particle size distribution in chocolate
Compositional effects on rheological and textural qualities in chocolate
The role of fats
The role of sugar
The role of milk and other dairy components
The role of surfactants in modern chocolate confectionery
Moisture and chocolate flow
Chocolate quality and defects
Chocolate quality
Chocolate defects
Conclusion and further research
The chemistry of flavour development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture
Introduction
Influence of bean selection on chocolate flavour quality
Effect of roasting
Maillard reactions aldol condensation, polymerisation and cyclisation
Effects of alkalisation
Flavour development during chocolate manufacture
Conching
Key flavour compounds in milk chocolate
Key flavour compounds in dark chocolate
Conclusion
Sensory character and flavour perception of chocolates
Summary and industrial relevance
Introduction
Sensory perception of quality in chocolates
Appearance
Texture
Taste
Flavour and aroma
Sensory assessment of chocolates
Factor influencing chocolate flavour
Flavour release and perception of sweetness in chocolate
Dynamism of flavour perception in chocolate
Retronasal flavour release and perception during chocolate consumption
Measurement of flavour release and intensity in chocolates
Electronic noses and tongues as online sensors for sensory assessment of chocolates
Conclusion
Nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption
Summary and significance
Introduction
Chemistry and composition of cocoa flavonoids
Chocolate types and their major nutritional constituents
Antioxidant properties and their mechanism of action
Effects on endothelial function, blood pressure and cardiovascular system
Effects on insulin sensitivity and carcinogenic properties
Cocoa, chocolate and aphrodisiac properties
Conclusion
Structure properties (rheology, texture and melting) relationships in chocolate manufacture
Summary and industrial relevance
Introduction
Materials and methods
Materials
Preparation of chocolate samples
Determination of particle size distribution
Rheological measurements
Tempering procedure
Texture measurements
Colour measurements of solid dark chocolate
Microstructure analysis
Determination of melting properties of dark chocolates
Experimental design and statistical analysis
Results and discussion
Particle size distribution of molten dark chocolate
Rheological properties of molten dark chocolate
Relationships between casson model and ICA recommendations
Textural properties
Molten dark chocolate
Hardness of tempered dark chocolate
Colour measurements
Relationships between textural properties and appearance of dark chocolate
Microstructural properties of molten dark chocolate
Melting properties of dark chocolate
Effects of particle size distribution
Effects of fat content
Effects of lecithin
Relationships between rheological, textural and melting properties of dark chocolate
Conclusion
Tempering behaviour during chocolate manufacture: effects of varying product matrices
Summary and industrial relevance
Introduction
Materials and methods
Materials
Tempering procedure
Determination of particle size distribution
Experimental design and statistical analysis
Results and discussion
Particle size distribution of dark chocolates
Effect of particle size distribution on tempering behaviour
Effect of fat content on tempering behaviour
Conclusion
Tempering and fat crystallisation effects on chocolate quality
Summary and industrial relevance
Introduction
Materials and methods
Materials
Determination of particle size distribution
Tempering experiment
Texture measurements
Colour and gloss measurements
Image acquisition and capture
Determination of melting properties
Microstructural determinations
Scanning electron microscopy
Experimental design and statistical analysis
Results and discussion
Particle size distribution of dark chocolates
Fat crystallisation behaviours during tempering of dark chocolate
Effect of temper regime and PSD on mechanical properties
Effect of temper regime and PSD on colour and gloss
Effect of temper regime and PSD on melting properties
Effect of temper regime on microstructure
Effect of temper regime on scanning electron microstructure
Conclusion
Fat bloom formation and development in chocolates
Summary and industrial relevance
Introduction
Materials and methods
Materials
Determination of particle size distribution
Tempering experiment
Texture measurements
Surface colour and gloss measurements
Determination of melting properties
Microstructural determinations
Experimental design and statistical analysis
Results and discussion
Conclusion
Matrix effects on flavour volatiles character and release in chocolates
Summary and industrial relevance
Introduction
Materials and methods
Materials
Tempering procedure
Determination of particle size distribution
Quantification of flavour volatiles by gas chromatography
Gas chromatography olfactometry analytical conditions
Experimental design and statistical analysis
Results and discussion
Particle size distribution of dark chocolates
Characterisation of flavour compounds in dark chocolates
Effects of particle size distribution on flavour volatile release
Effects of fat content on flavour volatile release
Relating flavour volatiles release to PSD and fat content: product spaces
Conclusion
Conclusions and industrial applications
Conclusions: Structure properties relationships in chocolate manufacture
Conclusions: Tempering behaviour from response surface methodology
Conclusions: Effects of tempering and fat crystallisation on microstructure and physical properties
Conclusions: FAT bloom formation and development with undertempering
Conclusions: Flavour volatiles and matrix effects related to variations in PSD and FAT content
Industrial relevance and applications of research findings in this book
Recommendations for further research studies
References
Abbreviations used and their meanings
Abbreviations, acronyms and websites of organizations related to cocoa and chocolate industry
Glossary of chocolate terminologies
Index