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Speleothem Science From Process to Past Environments

ISBN-10: 1405196203

ISBN-13: 9781405196208

Edition: 2012

Authors: Ian J. Fairchild, Andy Baker

List price: $142.00
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Book details

List price: $142.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/30/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 450
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.596
Language: English

Ian Fairchild and Andy BakerSchool of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK

Andy Baker is Associate Professor of Political Science and Faculty Associate in the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. He teaches courses on comparative politics, political economy, global development, and African and Latin American politics. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. Andy conducts research on Latin American politics, international political economy, and mass political behavior. In 2009, he published a book with Cambridge University Press, entitled The Market and the Masses in Latin America: Policy Reform and Consumption in Liberalizing Economies, on the nature and causes of citizens' attitudes toward free-market policies in 18 Latin American nations. Andy has also published articles in American Journal of Political Science, World Politics, Latin American Research Review, and Electoral Studies. His current research projects focus on the Latin American Left, public opinion toward foreign aid in donor countries, and the impact of globalization on economic insecurity in the developing world.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Scientific and geological context
Introduction to speleothems and systems
What is all the fuss about?
What types of speleothem are useful for generating climate archives?
Where do speleothems occur?
How do they form?
How do we date them?
What are the proxies for past environments and climates?
How do speleothems compare with other archives?
What next for speleothem science?
How is this book organized?
Concepts and approaches of system science
Box 1.1 Box models and feedback
The speleothem factory within the karst system
Long-term change
Annual-scale behaviour
Decadal- to multi-millennial-scale changes
Carbonate and karst cave geology
Carbonates in the Earth system over geological time
Lithologies of carbonate host rocks
Carbonate facies
The architecture of carbonate host rocks: sequence stratigraphy
Impure and geologically complex host rocks
Carbonate porosity
Carbonate diagenesis and eogenetic karst
Early diagenesis in marine waters and brines
Vadose diagenetic processes
Meteoric phreatic diagenesis
Eogenetic karst development
Burial diagenesis
Speleogenesis in mesogenetic and telogenetic karst (with contributions from John Gunn and David J Lowe)
Chronologies of cave development
Geometry of cave passages and systems
Localization of caves: the inception horizon hypothesis
Mesogenetic caves
Modelling the development of conduits and networks
Cave infilling
Mechanisms of cave infill and their relative power
Dating the infills
Physical sedimentology
Archaeological issues
The long-term prognosis
Conclusion
Surface environments: climate, soil and vegetation
The modern climate system
The global energy budget
Global patterns of temperature, rainfall and evapotranspiration
The general circulation of the atmosphere
Ocean circulation and land-ocean interactions
Box 3.1 Climate indices
Box 3.2 Back trajectory analysis
Climate classifications and 'hotspots'
Water isotopes in the atmosphere
Variation in stable isotopes owing to evaporation and Rayleigh condensation
Other factors responsible for variations in isotopic composition
Isotopic variations in space within the annual cycle
Inter-annual isotopic variations
Soils of karst regions
Processes of soil formation
Soil development through time
Concluding views on karst soils
Vegetation of karst regions
Synthesis: inputs to the incubator
Transfer processes in karst
The speleothem incubator
Introduction to speleophysiology
Physical parameters and fluid behaviour
Measurement of parameters
Static parameters in air
Dynamic fluid behaviour: laminar versus turbulent flow
Dynamic fluid behaviour: advective versus diffusive transport
Water movement
Air circulation
Physical causes
Cave breathing
Wind-induced flow
Chimney circulation
Convection
Water-induced flow
Radon studies as indicators of rates of air-exchange
Carbon dioxide and its variability
Generalizing seasonality and its implications for speleothems
Heat flux (authored by David Dom�nguez-Villar)
Sources and mechanisms of heat transfer into caves
Geothermal heat flux
Surface heat flux
Heat transferred by the atmosphere
Heat transferred from water
Heat transferred from the rock
Thermal equilibrium in caves
Synthesis: cave climatologies
Inorganic water chemistry
Sampling protocols for water chemistry
Box 5.1 Aqueous chemistry definitions
The carbonate system
Weathering, trace elements and isotopes
Overview of element sources and sinks
Calcite dissolution as an exemplar of weathering processes
Mineral weathering
Isotope studies
Colloidally bound elements
Box 5.2 Ion behaviour and complexation
Carbon isotopes
Box 5.3
Evolution of cave water chemistry: modelling sources and environmental signals
Forward modelling
Backward modelling
Biogeochemistry of karstic environments
Introduction
Organic macromolecules
Fluorescent organic matter
Box 6.1 Organic macromolecules in speleothems
Lipid and lignin macromolecules
Box 6.2 Colloids and gels: interactions between organic matter and inorganic stalagmite proxies (lead author Adam Hartland)
Ribosomal DNA
Pollen and spores
Pollen
Spores
Cave faunal remains
Synthesis and research gaps
Box 6.3 Vegetation and soil cycling of inorganic proxies: evidence from sulphur isotopes
Speleothem properties
The architecture of speleothems
Introduction
Theoretical models of stalagmite growth and of stalagmite and stalactite shapes
Theories of speleothem growth rate
Models of stalagmite shapes
Models of stalactite shapes
Geometrical classification of speleothems
Soda-straw stalactites
Non-'soda-straw' stalactites
'Minimum-diameter' stalagmites
Non-'minimum-diameter' stalagmites
Flowstones
Other speleothem forms
Box 7.1 Speleoseismicity in the Mechara karst, southeastern Ethiopia (authored by Asfawossen Asrat)
Mineralogy and petrology
Mineralogy: aragonite versus calcite
Crystal fabrics
Nucleation
Crystal morphology
Impingement growth
Stalagmite fabrics
Laminae
Growth phases and hiatuses
Synthesis
Geochemistry of speleothems
Analysis and the sources of uncertainty
What's the research question?
Analytical specificity
The geometry of the growth surface and spatial precision
Analytical precision and accuracy
The growth interface
Nanostructure of the growth surface
Organic molecules
Biological activity at the growth interface
Trace element partitioning
Thermodynamic and mixed empirical-thermodynamic approaches
Limitations of the partition coefficient concept
Oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation
Fluid inclusions
Can an equilibrium composition be defined?
Kinetic effects during CaC03 precipitation
pH and growth rate effects
The Hendy test
Modelling fractionation along speleothem surfaces
Clumped isotope geothermometry (�47 value)
Evolution of dripwater and speleothem chemistry along water flowlines
Process models of variability over time
Stadial- to glacial-length episodes
Sub-millennial variation
Annual cycles
Dating of speleothems
Introduction
Dating techniques
Interval dating
<sup>14</sup>C
U-Th
U-Pb
Other techniques
Age-distance models
Conclusions
Palaeoenvironments
The instrumental era: calibration and validation of proxy-environment relationships
Available instrumental and derived series
Directly measured data
Interpolated data products
Reanalysis data
Climate indices
Methodologies
Overview of methodologies used in other fields
Linear-regression-based techniques
Compositing records
Forward modelling
Pseudoproxies
Appropriate methodologies for speleothem calibration
Linear-regression-based approaches
Compositing
Forward modelling
Pseudoproxies
Case studies of calibrated speleothem proxies
Annual lamina thickness
�<sup>18</sup>O
Other proxies
Questions raised and future directions
The Holocene epoch: testing the climate and environmental proxies
A brief overview of the Holocene
The Early Holocene
The Mid-Holocene
Late Holocene
The past millennium
Instrumentally calibrated speleothem climate reconstructions
Multi-proxy reconstructions and model-proxy comparisons
Holocene environmental changes: speleothem responses
The period of remnant ice sheets in the Early Holocene
The last Mediterranean sapropel
The '8.2ka event'
Orbital forcing over the Mid- to Late Holocene
Evidence for multi-decadal and multi-centennial climate variability
Box 11.1
Speleothem evidence of Holocene soil and vegetation change
Questions raised and future directions
The Pleistocene and beyond
Pleistocene proxy records (ice-age climate fluctuations defined and drawn)
Subaqueous speleothem records: Devils Hole, USA
Composite speleothem records: Soreq Cave, Israel
Palaeoclimate hotspots: the Asian monsoon and the nature of glacial terminations
The timing of Greenland interstadials
Sea-level records from flooded caves
Insights into pre-Quaternary palaeoenvironments
High-resolution snapshots of pre-Quaternary palaeoenvironments
Dating archives of human evolution
Questions raised and looking to the future
Archiving speleothems and speleothem data
References
Index