Nutrition A Lifespan Approach

ISBN-10: 1405178787

ISBN-13: 9781405178785

Edition: 2009

List price: $52.99
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Book details

List price: $52.99
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 6/5/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 312
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

Introduction to Lifespan Nutrition
The lifespan approach to nutrition
The concept of balance
A supply and demand model
Increased demand
The metabolic response to trauma
Compromised supply and deficiency
Classical balance studies
Overall nutritional status
Nutrition requirements change across the lifespan
Assessment of nutritional status
Anthropometric measures
Estimating dietary intakes
Indirect measures
Direct measures
Biomarkers of nutritional status
Clinical examination
Dietary reference values
The UK dietary reference value system
Dietary reference values in other countries
Before Life Begins
Nutrition and female fertility
Determinants of fertility and infertility
The endocrine control of female reproduction
Disordered reproductive cycling
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Assisted reproductive technologies
Importance of body fat
Role of leptin
Antioxidant nutrients
Caffeine and alcohol
Nutrition and male fertility
Determinants of fertility and infertility
Antioxidant nutrients
Phytoestrogens and environmental estrogens
Preparation for pregnancy
Why prepare for pregnancy?
Vitamin A and liver
Folic acid and neural tube defects
Supplementation with folic acid
Fortification with folic acid
Physiological demands of pregnancy
Maternal weight gain and body composition changes
Blood volume expansion and cardiovascular changes
Renal changes
Respiratory changes
Gastrointestinal changes
Metabolic adaptations
Nutrient requirements in pregnancy
Energy, protein, and lipids
Calcium and other minerals
Vitamin D
Diet in relation to pregnancy outcomes
Miscarriage and stillbirth
Premature labor
Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain
Alcohol and caffeine consumption
Oral health
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
The etiology of PE
Nutrition-related factors and PE
Abnormal labor
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP)
NVP as a normal physiological process
Hyperemesis gravidarum
Cravings and aversions
Gastrointestinal disturbances in pregnancy
High-risk pregnancies
Gestational diabetes
Multiple pregnancies
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Fetal Nutrition and Disease in Later Life
The developmental origins of adult disease
The concept of programming
Fetal programming and human disease
Evidence linking maternal nutrition to disease in later life
Criticisms of the programming hypothesis
Experimental studies
Global undernutrition
Mechanistic basis of fetal programming
Thrifty phenotypes and genotypes
Predictive adaptive responses
Tissue remodeling
Endocrine imbalance
Nutrientgene interactions
Epigenetic regulation
Implications of the programming hypothesis
Public health interventions
Trans-generational transmission of disease risk
Lactation and Infant Feeding
The physiology of lactation
Anatomy of the breast
The nipple and areola
The lactiferous ducts
The lactiferous sinuses
The alveolar cells
The rooting reflex
Synthesis of milk
Foremilk and hindmilk
Time of day
Course of lactation
Synthesis of carbohydrates
Origins of milk fats
Milk proteins
Endocrine control of lactation
The breast during pregnancy
Established lactation
The breast after weaning
Maintenance of lactation
Nutritional demands of lactation
The advantages of breast-feeding
Advantages for the mother
Advantages for the infant
Recommendation to feed to 6 months
Trends in breast-feeding behavior
Reasons why women do not breast-feed
Promoting breast-feeding
Situations in which breast-feeding is not advised
Alternatives to breast-feeding
Cows milk formulas
Milk stages and follow-on milk
Preterm formulas
Soy formulas
Hydrolyzed protein and amino-acid-based formulas
Other formulas
Nutrition and Childhood
Infancy (birth to five)
The key developmental milestones
Nutrient requirements
Macronutrients and energy
Nutrient intakes and infants
Transition to an adult pattern of food intake
Nutrition-related problems
Barriers to healthy nutrition
Childhood (five to thirteen)
Nutrient requirements of the older child
School meals and the promotion of healthy eating
The importance of breakfast
Obesity in children
The rising prevalence of obesity
The causes of obesity in childhood
Physical activity
Food intake
Genetic disorders
The consequences of childhood obesity
Immediate health consequences
Tracking of obesity: consequences for the future
Treatment of childhood obesity
Prevention of childhood obesity
Nutrition and Adolescence
Physical development
Growth rate
Body composition
Puberty and sexual maturation
Bone growth
Psychosocial development
Nutritional requirements in adolescence
Macronutrients and energy
Nutritional intakes in adolescence
Factors that influence food choice
Food consumed out of the home
Meal skipping and snacking
Potential problems with nutrition
Dieting and weight control
The vegetarian teenager
Sport and physical activity
Eating disorders
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
The pregnant teenager
Tobacco smoking
Drug abuse
The Adult Years
Changing needs for nutrients
Guidelines for healthy nutrition
Disease states associated with unhealthy nutrition and lifestyle
Classification of overweight and obesity
Prevalence and trends in obesity
Causes of obesity in adulthood
Treatment of obesity
Type-2 diabetes
The metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular disease
What is cardiovascular disease?
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease
Nutrition-related factors and risk of cardiovascular disease
What is cancer?
Diet is the main determinant of cancer risk
Nutritional epidemiology and cancer
Dietary factors that may promote cancer
Dietary factors that may reduce cancer risk
Nutrition, Aging, and the Elderly
The aging population
The aging process
Impact on physiological systems
Mechanisms of cellular senescence
Oxidative senescence
The role of p53 activation
Telomere shortening
The INK4a/ARF axis
Nutritional modulation of the aging process
Caloric restriction and lifespan
Fetal programming of lifespan
Supplementary antioxidants
Nutrient requirements of the elderly
Macronutrients and energy
Specific guidelines for the elderly
Barriers to healthy nutrition in the elderly
Malnutrition and the elderly
Social isolation
Physical changes
Combating malnutrition in the elderly
Common nutrition-related health problems
Bone disorders
Bone mineralization and remodeling
Osteoporosis pathology and prevalence
Risk factors for osteoporosis
Dietary interventions for osteoporosis prevention
Pagets disease of bone
Immunity and infection
Digestive tract disorders
Mouth and esophagus
Small intestine
Large intestine
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folic acid deficiency
Cognitive impairment and anemia
Personalized Nutrition
The individual response to variation in food intake
Genes may determine food intake
Regulation of food intake
Regulation of macronutrient intake
Regulation of taste
Genes may determine nutrient bioavailability and utilization
Nutritional regulation of gene expression
Identifying disease risk biomarkers
Genetic influences on response to nutrients and disease risk
Cardiovascular disease
Nutrientgene interactions a lifespan approach
The future of nutritional advice?
Glossary of Terms
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