Christian Theology An Introduction

ISBN-10: 1405153601

ISBN-13: 9781405153607

Edition: 4th 2006 (Revised)

Authors: Alister McGrath

List price: $62.95
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Providing a treatment of the first 2000 years of Christian theological debate, this edition includes sections on African, Asian, and Indian theology; history and theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church; history of women in the early Church; Catholic teachings on the doctrines of the Church, and a section on suffering.
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Book details

List price: $62.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/13/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 568
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.100
Language: English

Alister McGrath is currently professor of theology at Oxford and principal of Wycliffe Hall. He is a consulting editor, general editor and author of several books. He lives in Oxford, England.

List of Illustrations
Mission Statement
To the Student: How to Use this Work
To the Teacher: How to Use this Book
Resources for Further Study: Bibliographies and Websites
Landmarks: Periods, Themes, and Personalities of Christian Theology
The Patristic Period, c.100-c.700
The Early Centers of Theological Activity
An Overview of the Patristic Period
A clarification of terms
The theological agenda of the period
Key Theologians
Justin Martyr
Irenaeus of Lyons
Cyprian of Carthage
The Cappadocian fathers
Augustine of Hippo
Key Theological Debates and Developments
The extent of the New Testament canon
The role of tradition: the Gnostic controversies
The fixing of the ecumenical creeds
The two natures of Jesus Christ: the Arian controversy
The doctrine of the Trinity
The doctrine of the church: the Donatist controversy
The doctrine of grace: the Pelagian controversy
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, c.700-c.1500
On Defining the "Middle Ages"
Medieval Theological Landmarks in Western Europe
The Carolingian renaissance
The rise of cathedral and monastic schools of theology
The religious orders and their "schools of theology"
The founding of the universities
Peter Lombard's Four Books of the Sentences
The rise of scholasticism
The Italian Renaissance
The rise of humanism
Medieval Theological Landmarks in Eastern Europe
The emergence of Byzantine theology
The iconoclastic controversy
The hesychastic controversy
The fall of Constantinople (1453)
Key Theologians
John of Damascus
Simeon the New Theologian
Anselm of Canterbury
Thomas Aquinas
Duns Scotus
William of Ockham
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Key Theological Developments
The consolidation of the patristic heritage
The exploration of the role of reason in theology
The development of theological systems
The development of sacramental theology
The development of the theology of grace
The role of Mary in the scheme of salvation
Returning directly to the sources of Christian theology
The critique of the Vulgate translation of Scripture
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
The Age of Reformation, c.1500-c.1750
Introducing the Reformation
Reformation - or Reformations?
The Dynamics of Reformation
The German Reformation - Lutheranism
The Swiss Reformation - the Reformed church
The Radical Reformation - Anabaptism
The English Reformation - Anglicanism
The Catholic Reformation
The Second Reformation - Confessionalization
Post-Reformation Movements
The consolidation of Roman Catholicism
Key Theologians
Martin Luther
Huldrych Zwingli
John Calvin
Teresa of Avila
Theodore Beza
Johann Gerhard
Roberto Bellarmine
Jonathan Edwards
Key Theological Developments
The sources of theology
The doctrine of grace
The doctrine of the sacraments
The doctrine of the church
Developments in Theological Literature
The catechisms
Confessions of faith
Works of systematic theology
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
The Modern Period, c.1750-the Present
Theology and Cultural Developments in the West
Modernism: the new intellectual environment for theology
The Enlightenment critique of traditional theology
Romanticism and the renewal of the theological imagination
The crisis of faith in Victorian England: George Eliot and Matthew Arnold
An intellectual rival to Christianity: Marxism
Postmodernism and a new theological agenda
Key Theologians
F. D. E. Schleiermacher
John Henry Newman
Karl Barth
Paul Tillich
Karl Rahner
Hans Urs von Balthasar
Jurgen Moltmann
Wolfhart Pannenberg
Denominational Developments in Theology
Roman Catholicism
Eastern Orthodoxy
Pentecostalism and charismatic movements
Some Recent Western Theological Movements and Trends
Liberal Protestantism
Roman Catholic modernism
Ressourcement, or, La nouvelle theologie
Liberation theology
Black theology
Radical orthodoxy
Theologies of the Developing World
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
Sources and Methods
Getting Started: Preliminaries
Defining Theology
A working definition of theology
The historical development of the idea of theology
The development of theology as an academic discipline
The Architecture of Theology
Biblical studies
Systematic theology
Philosophical theology
Historical theology
Pastoral theology
Spirituality, or mystical theology
The Question of Prolegomena
Commitment and Neutrality in Theology
Orthodoxy and Heresy
Historical aspects
Theological aspects
The Theology of the Relation of Christianity and Secular Culture
Justin Martyr
Augustine of Hippo
The twentieth century: H. Richard Niebuhr
The Sources of Theology
The Old Testament
The New Testament
Other works: deutero-canonical and apocryphal writings
The relation of the Old and New Testaments
The Word of God
Narrative theology
Methods of interpretation of Scripture
Theories of the inspiration of Scripture
A single-source theory of tradition
A dual-source theory of tradition
The total rejection of tradition
Theology and worship: the importance of liturgical tradition
Reason and revelation: three models
Enlightenment rationalism
Criticisms of Enlightenment rationalism
Religious Experience
Existentialism: a philosophy of human experience
Experience and theology: two models
Ludwig Feuerbach's critique of experience-based theologies
Knowledge of God: Natural and Revealed
The Idea of Revelation
Models of Revelation
Revelation as doctrine
Revelation as presence
Revelation as experience
Revelation as history
Natural Theology: Its Scope and Limits
Thomas Aquinas on natural theology
John Calvin on natural theology
The Reformed tradition on natural theology
God's two books: nature and Scripture
Approaches to Discerning God in Nature
Human reason
The ordering of the world
The beauty of the world
Objections to Natural Theology
A theological objection: Karl Barth
A theological response: Thomas F. Torrance
A philosophical objection: Alvin Plantinga
A philosophical response: William Alston
A debate: Karl Barth versus Emil Brunner (1934)
The Natural Sciences and Christian Theology: Models of Interaction
The continuity between science and theology
The distinctiveness of science and theology
The convergence of science and theology
The opposition of science and theology
Philosophy and Theology: Introducing a Dialogue
Philosophy and Theology: The Notion of the "Handmaid"
The "handmaid": the dialogue between theology and philosophy
Verification and falsification: can Christian ideas be proved?
The debate over realism: to what do theological statements refer?
The Nature of Faith
Faith and knowledge
Faith and salvation
Can God's Existence be Proved?
Anselm of Canterbury's ontological argument
Thomas Aquinas's Five Ways
The kalam argument
The classic argument from design: William Paley
The Nature of Theological Language
Apophatic and kataphatic approaches to theology
A case study: the Copernican debate
Christian Theology
The Doctrine of God
Is God Male?
A Personal God
Defining "person"
Dialogical personalism: Martin Buber
Can God Suffer?
The classic view: the impassibility of God
A suffering God: Jurgen Moltmann
The death of God?
The Omnipotence of God
Defining omnipotence
The two powers of God
The notion of divine self-limitation
God's Action in the World
Deism: God acts through the laws of nature
Thomism: God acts through secondary causes
Process theology: God acts through persuasion
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: Point Omega
God as Creator
Development of the doctrine of creation
Creation and the rejection of dualism
The doctrine of creation ex nihilo
Implications of the doctrine of creation
Models of God as creator
Creation and Christian approaches to ecology
Theodicies: The Problem of Evil
Irenaeus of Lyons
Augustine of Hippo
Karl Barth
Alvin Plantinga
Other recent contributions
The Holy Spirit
Models of the Holy Spirit
The debate over the divinity of the Holy Spirit
Augustine of Hippo: the Spirit as bond of love
The functions of the Spirit
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Origins of the Christian Doctrine of the Trinity
The apparent illogicality of the doctrine
The Trinity as a statement about Jesus Christ
The Trinity as a statement about the Christian God
Islamic critiques of the doctrine of the Trinity
The Biblical Foundations of the Doctrine of the Trinity
The Historical Development of the Doctrine
The emergence of the trinitarian vocabulary
The emergence of trinitarian concepts
The problem of visualization: analogies of the Trinity
"Economic" and "essential" approaches to the Trinity
Two Trinitarian Heresies
Modalism: chronological and functional
The Trinity: Six Classic and Contemporary Approaches
The Cappadocians
Augustine of Hippo
Karl Barth
Karl Rahner
Robert Jenson
John Macquarrie
Some Discussions of the Trinity in Recent Theology
F. D. E. Schleiermacher on the dogmatic location of the Trinity
Jurgen Moltmann on the social Trinity
Eberhard Jungel on the Trinity and metaphysics
Catherine Mowry LaCugna on the Trinity and salvation
The Filioque Controversy
The Doctrine of the Person of Christ
The Place of Jesus Christ in Christian Theology
Jesus Christ is the historical point of departure for Christianity
Jesus Christ reveals God
Jesus Christ is the bearer of salvation
Jesus Christ defines the shape of the redeemed life
New Testament Christological Titles
Son of God
Son of Man
The Patristic Debate over the Person of Christ
Early contributions: from Justin Martyr to Origen
The Arian controversy
The Alexandrian school
The Antiochene school
The "communication of attributes"
Adolf von Harnack on the evolution of patristic Christology
The Relation of the Incarnation and the Fall in Medieval Christology
The Relation Between the Person and Work of Christ
Christological Models - Classic and Contemporary
The substantial presence of God in Christ
Christ as mediator between God and humanity
The revelational presence of God in Christ
Christ as a symbolic presence of God
Christ as the bearer of the Holy Spirit
Christ as the example of a godly life
Christ as a hero
Kenotic approaches to Christology
Faith and History: The Christological Agenda of Modernity
Faith and History: A Modernist Agenda
The Enlightenment and Christology
The philosophical uselessness of history
The critique of miracles
The development of doctrinal criticism
The Problem of Faith and History
The chronological difficulty
The metaphysical difficulty
The existential difficulty
The Quest of the Historical Jesus
The original quest of the historical Jesus
The quest for the religious personality of Jesus
The critique of the quest, 1890-1910
The retreat from history: Rudolf Bultmann
The new quest of the historical Jesus
The third quest of the historical Jesus
The Resurrection of Christ: Event and Meaning
The Enlightenment: the resurrection as nonevent
David Friedrich Strauss: the resurrection as myth
Rudolf Bultmann: the resurrection as an event in the experience of the disciples
Karl Barth: the resurrection as an historical event beyond critical inquiry
Wolfhart Pannenberg: the resurrection as an historical event open to critical inquiry
Resurrection and the Christian hope
The Doctrine of Salvation in Christ
Christian Approaches to Salvation
Salvation is linked with Jesus Christ
Salvation is shaped by Jesus Christ
The eschatological dimension of salvation
The Foundations of Salvation: The Cross of Christ
The cross as a sacrifice
The cross as a victory
The cross and forgiveness
The cross as a demonstration of God's love
Violence and the cross: the theory of Rene Girard
Models of Salvation in Christ - Classic and Contemporary
Some Pauline images of salvation
Deification: being made divine
Righteousness in the sight of God
Personal holiness
Authentic human existence
Political liberation
Spiritual freedom
The Appropriation of Salvation in Christ
The institutionalization of salvation: the church
The privatization of salvation: personal faith
The Scope of Salvation in Christ
Universalism: all will be saved
Only believers will be saved
Particular redemption: only the elect will be saved
The Doctrines of Human Nature, Sin, and Grace
The Place of Humanity Within Creation: Early Reflections
The image of God
The concept of sin
Augustine of Hippo and the Pelagian Controversy
The "freedom of the will"
The nature of sin
The nature of grace
The basis of salvation
The Medieval Synthesis of the Doctrine of Grace
The Augustinian legacy
The medieval distinction between actual and habitual grace
The late medieval critique of habitual grace
The medieval debate over the nature and grounds of merit
The Reformation Debates over the Doctrine of Grace
From "salvation by grace" to "justification by faith"
Martin Luther's theological breakthrough
Luther on justifying faith
The concept of forensic justification
John Calvin on justification
The Council of Trent on justification
The Doctrine of Predestination
Augustine of Hippo
John Calvin
Reformed orthodoxy
Karl Barth
Predestination and economics: the Weber thesis
The Darwinian Controversy and the Nature of Humanity
Young earth creationism
Old earth creationism
Intelligent design
Evolutionary theism
The Doctrine of the Church
Biblical Models of the Church
The Old Testament
The New Testament
The Early Development of Ecclesiology
The Donatist Controversy
Early Protestant Doctrines of the Church
Martin Luther
John Calvin
The radical Reformation
Christ and the Church: Some Twentieth-century Themes
Christ is present sacramentally
Christ is present through the word
Christ is present through the Spirit
The Second Vatican Council on the Church
The church as communion
The church as the people of God
The church as a charismatic community
The "Notes" of the Church
The Doctrine of the Sacraments
The Early Development of Sacramental Theology
The Definition of a Sacrament
The Donatist Controversy: Sacramental Efficacy
The Multiple Functions of the Sacraments
Sacraments convey grace
Sacraments strengthen faith
Sacraments enhance unity and commitment within the church
Sacraments reassure us of God's promises toward us
A case study in complexity: the functions of the Eucharist
The Eucharist: The Question of the Real Presence
The ninth-century debates over the real presence
The medieval clarification of the relation of "sign" and "sacrament" in the Eucharist
Transignification and transfinalization
A real absence: memorialism
The Debate Concerning Infant Baptism
Infant baptism remits the guilt of original sin
Infant baptism is grounded in the covenant between God and the church
Infant baptism is unjustified
Christianity and the World Religions
Western Pluralism and the Question of Other Religions
Approaches to Religions
The Enlightenment: religions as a corruption of the original religion of nature
Ludwig Feuerbach: religion as an objectification of human feeling
Karl Marx: religion as the product of socioeconomic alienation
Sigmund Freud: religion as wish-fulfillment
Emile Durkheim: religion and ritual
Mircea Eliade: religion and myth
Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer: religion as a human invention
Christian Approaches to Other Religions
The Last Things: The Christian Hope
Developments in the Doctrine of the Last Things
The New Testament
Early Christianity and Roman beliefs about reunion after death
Augustine: the two cities
Joachim of Fiore: the three ages
Dante Alighieri: the Divine Comedy
Hope in the face of death: Jeremy Taylor
The Enlightenment: eschatology as superstition
The twentieth century: the rediscovery of eschatology
Rudolf Bultmann: the demythologization of eschatology
Jurgen Moltmann: the theology of hope
Helmut Thielicke: ethics and eschatology
Dispensationalism: the structures of eschatology
The Last Things
The millennium
Glossary of Theological Terms
Sources of Citations
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