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Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies An Introduction to Biological Control

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ISBN-10: 1405145714

ISBN-13: 9781405145718

Edition: 2008

Authors: Roy Van Driesche, Mark Hoddle, Ted Center, Ted D. Center

List price: $97.95
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Description:

Roy van Driesche and Mark Hoddle intend to present the standard teaching text on the biological control of arthropod pests and weeds in agricultural systems. This new book replaces the now out-of-date text produced by the first author in 1996 (Chapman & Hall). This is waht the authors say in the (rather detailed) proposal document:" This work is intended to be the standard text for teaching biological control of arthropods and weeds to graduate students and upper division undergraduates at the University level. It replaces an out-of-date text with the same focus written by the first author prior to 1996. Our goals for this text are to sharpen the focus on use of biological control to…    
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Book details

List price: $97.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/12/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 484
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.442
Language: English

Preface
Scope of Biological Control
Introduction
Types of Biological Control, Targets, and Agents
What is biological control?
Permanent control over large areas
Temporary pest suppression in production areas
Kinds of targets and kinds of agents
Kinds of Natural Enemies
Parasitoid Diversity and Ecology
What is a parasitoid?
Terms and processes
Some references to parasitoid families
Groups of parasitoids
Finding hosts
Host recognition and assessment
Defeating host defenses
Regulating host physiology
Patch-time allocation
Predator Diversity and Ecology
Non-insect predators
Major groups of predatory insects
Overview of predator biology
Predator foraging behavior
Predators and pest control
Effects of alternative foods on predator impact
Interference of generalist predators with classical biological control agents
Predator and prey defense strategies
Weed Biocontrol Agent Diversity and Ecology
The goal of weed biological control
Terms and processes
Herbivory and host finding
Herbivore guilds
Group of herbivores and plant pathogens
Arthropod Pathogen Diversity and Ecology
Bacterial pathogens of arthropods
Viral pathogens of arthropods
Fungal pathogens of arthropods
Nematodes attacking arthropods
Generalized arthropod pathogen life cycle
Epidemiology: what leads to disease outbreaks?
Invasions: Why Biological Control is Needed
The Invasion Crisis
Urgency of the invasion crisis
Case histories of four high-impact invaders
The extent of harmful impact by invaders
How do invasive species get to new places?
Why do some invasions succeed but others fail?
Invader ecology and impact
Ways to Suppress Invasive Species
Prevention: heading off new invasions through sound policy
Eradication based on early detection
Invaders that do no harm
Control of invasive pests in natural areas
Factors affecting control in natural areas
Control of invasive species in crops
Natural Enemy Introductions: Theory and Practice
Interaction Webs as the Conceptual Framework for Classical Biological Control
Terminology
Forces setting plant population density
Forces setting insect population density
Predictions about pests based on food webs
The Role of Population Ecology and Population Models in Biological Control, By Joseph Elkinton
Basic concepts
Population models
Classical Biological Control
Introduction
Classical biological control
New-association biological control
Summary
Weed Biological Control
Differences and similarities between weed and arthropod programs
Why plants become invasive
Selecting suitable targets for weed biological control
Conflicts of interest in weed biological control
Faunal inventories: finding potential weed biological control agents
Safety: "will those bugs eat my roses?"
Pre-release determination of efficacy
How many agents are necessary for weed control?
Release, establishment, and dispersal
Evaluation of impacts
Non-target impacts
When is a project successful?
Conclusions
Tools for Classical Biological Control
Foreign Exploration
Planning and conducting foreign exploration
Shipping natural enemies
Operating a quarantine laboratory
Managing insect colonies in quarantine
Developing petitions for release into the environment
Climate Matching
Climate matching
Inductive modeling: predicting spread and incursion success
Deductive modeling: predicting spread and incursion success
Conclusions
Molecular Tools, By Richard Stouthamer
Types of molecular data
Important biological control issues that molecular techniques can address
Conclusions
Safety
Non-Target Impacts of Biological Control Agents
Biological control as an evolving technology
The amateur to early scientific period (1800-1920)
A developing science makes some mistakes (1920-70)
Broadening perspectives (1970-90)
Current practice and concerns
"Re-greening" biological control
Predicting Natural Enemy Host Ranges
Literature records
Surveys in the native range
Laboratory testing to estimate host ranges
Interpretation of tests
Examples of host-range estimation
Risk assessment
Avoiding Indirect Non-Target Impacts
Kinds of potential indirect effects
Can risk of indirect impacts be reduced by predicting natural enemy efficacy?
Measuring Natural Enemy Impacts on Pests
Field Colonization of Natural Enemies
Limitations from the agent or recipient community
Managing release sites
Quality of the release
Caging or other release methods
Persistence and confirmation
Natural Enemy Evaluation
Natural enemy surveys in crops
Pre-release surveys in the native range for classical biological control
Post-release surveys to detect establishment and spread of new agents
Post-release monitoring for non-target impacts
Measurement of impacts on the pest
Separating effects of a complex of natural enemies
Economic assessment of biological control
Conserving Biological Control Agents in Crops
Protecting Natural Enemies from Pesticides
Problems with pesticides
Super pests and missing natural enemies
Dead wildlife and pesticide residues in food
Cases when pesticides are the best tool
How pesticides affect natural enemies
Seeking solutions: physiological selectivity
Pesticide-resistant natural enemies
Ecological selectivity: using non-selective pesticides with skill
Transgenic Bt crops: the ultimate ecologically selective pesticide
Enhancing Crops as Natural Enemy Environments
Problem 1: unfavorable crop varieties
Solution 1: breeding natural enemy-friendly crops
Problem 2: crop fields physically damaging to natural enemies
Solution 2: cover crops, mulching, no-till farming, strip harvesting
Problem 3: inadequate nutritional sources
Solution 3: adding nutrition to crop environments
Problem 4: inadequate reproduction opportunities
Solution 4: creating opportunities for contact with alternative hosts or prey
Problem 5: inadequate sources of natural enemy colonists
Solution 5: crop-field connectivity, vegetation diversity, and refuges
Other practices that can affect natural enemies
Conclusions
Biopesticides
Microbial Pesticides: Issues and Concepts
History of microbial insecticides
What makes a pathogen a likely biopesticide?
Overview of options for rearing pathogens
Agent quality: finding it, keeping it, improving it
Measuring the efficacy of microbial pesticides
Degree of market penetration and future outlook
Use of Arthropod Pathogens as Pesticides
Bacteria as insecticides
Fungi as biopesticides
Viruses as insecticides
Nematodes for insect control
Safety of biopesticides
Augmentative Biological Control
Biological Control in Greenhouses
Historical beginnings
When are greenhouses favorable for biological control?
Natural enemies available from the insectary industry
Growers' commitment to change
Requirements for success: efficacy and low cost
Methods for mass rearing parasitoids and predators
Practical use of natural enemies
Programs with different biological control strategies
Integration of multiple biocontrol agents for several pests
Safety of natural enemy releases in greenhouses
Augmentative Release of Natural Enemies in Outdoor Crops
Trichogramma wasps for moth control
Use of predatory phytoseiid mites
Control of filth flies
Other examples of specialized agents
Generalist predators sold for non-specific problems
Other Targets and New Directions
Vertebrate Pests
Predators as vertebrate control agents
Parasites as vertebrate control agents
Pathogens as vertebrate control agents
New avenues for biological control of vertebrates
Conclusions
Expanding the Biological Control Horizon: New Purposes and New Targets
Targeting weeds and arthropod pests of natural areas
Targeting "non-traditional" invasive pests
Conclusions
Future Directions
Classical biological control
Conservation biological control
Augmentation biological control
Biopesticides
Conclusions
References
Index