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Environmental Physiology of Animals

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ISBN-10: 1405107243

ISBN-13: 9781405107242

Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)

Authors: Pat Willmer, Graham Stone, Ian A. Johnston

List price: $160.00
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Description:

In a fresh approach to the subject of animal physiology, the authors integrate comparative and environmental aspects to examine and discuss how organisms, both vertebrate and invertebrate, cope with a range of environments.
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Book details

List price: $160.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/10/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 768
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 5.148

Pat Willmer is professor of zoology at the University of St. Andrews. She has published extensively on pollination biology in leading scientific journals. Her books include "Environmental Physiology of Animals".

Preface to Second Edition
Preface to First Edition
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
Basic Principles
The Nature and Levels of Adaptation
Introduction: comparative, environmental, and evolutionary physiology
The meaning of "environment"
The meaning of "adaptation"
Comparative methods to detect adaptation
Physiological response on different scales
Conclusions
Further reading
Fundamental Mechanisms of Adaptation
Introduction: adaptation at the molecular and genome level
Controlling protein action
Control of protein synthesis and degradation
Protein evolution
Physiological regulation of gene expression
Conclusions
Further reading
The Problems of Size and Scale
Introduction
Principle of similarity: isometric scaling
Allometric scaling
Scaling of metabolic rate
Scaling of locomotion
Conclusions: is there a right size to be?
Further reading
Central Issues in Comparative Physiology
Water, Ions, and Osmotic Physiology
Introduction
Aqueous solutions
Passive movements of water and solutes
Nonpassive solute movements
Concentrations of cell contents
Overall regulation of cell contents
Conclusions
Further reading
Animal Water Balance, Osmoregulation, and Excretion
Introduction
Exchanges occurring at the outer body surface
Osmoregulation at external surfaces
Osmoregulatory organs and their excretory products
Water regulation via the gut
Regulation of respiratory water exchanges
Water loss in reproductive systems
Water gain
Costs and energetics of regulating water and ion balance
Roles of nervous systems and hormones
Conclusions
Further reading
Metabolism and Energy Supply
Introduction
Metabolic intermediaries
Anaerobic metabolic pathways
Aerobic metabolism
Metabolic rates
Energy budgets
Further reading
Respiration and Circulation
Introduction
Uptake and loss of gases across respiratory surfaces
Ventilation systems to improve exchange rates
Circulatory systems
Delivering and transferring gases to the tissues
Coping with hypoxia and anoxia
Control of respiration
Further reading
Temperature and its Effects
Introduction
Biochemical effects of temperature
Physiological effects of temperature
Terminology and strategies in thermal biology
Thermal environments and thermal exchanges
Avoidance, tolerance, and acclimation in thermal biology
Regulating heat gain and keeping warm
Regulating heat loss and keeping cool
Opting out: evasion systems in space or time
Regulating thermal biology: nerves and hormones
Evolution and advantages of varying thermal strategies
Further reading
Excitable Tissues: Nervous Systems and Muscles
Introduction
Nerves
Neural functioning
Synaptic transmission
Nervous systems
Neural integration and higher neural processes
Neuronal development
Sensory systems: mechanisms and principles
Specific senses and sense organs
Muscles
Muscles and movement: introduction
Muscle structure
Muscle contraction
Muscle mechanics
Muscle types and diversity
Nerves and muscles working together
Motor activity patterns
Locomotion using muscles
Conclusions
Further reading
Hormones and Chemical Control Systems
Introduction
Endocrine systems
Control of water and osmotic balance
Control of ion balance and pH
Control of development and growth
Control of metabolism, temperature, and color
Control of sex and reproduction
Hormones and other behaviors: aggression, territoriality, and migration
Pheromones and the control of behavior
Conclusions
Further reading
Coping With the Environment
Introduction
Marine Life
Introduction: marine habitats and biota
Ionic and osmotic adaptation
Thermal adaptation
Respiratory adaptation
Reproductive and life-cycle adaptation
Depth problems, buoyancy, and locomotion
Sensory issues: marine signaling
Feeding and being fed on
Anthropogenic problems
Secondary invasion of the seas: marine vertebrates
Conclusions
Further reading
Shorelines and Estuaries
Introduction: brackish habitats and biota
Ionic and osmotic adaptation and water balance
Thermal adaptation
Respiratory adaptation
Reproductive and life-cycle adaptation
Mechanical, locomotory, and sensory systems
Feeding and being fed on
Anthropogenic problems
Conclusions
Further reading
Fresh Water
Introduction: freshwater habitats and biota
Ionic and osmotic adaptation and water balance
Thermal adaptation
Respiratory adaptation
Reproductive and life-cycle adaptation
Mechanical, locomotory, and sensory adaptations
Feeding and being fed on
Anthropogenic problems
Conclusions
Further reading
Special Aquatic Habitats
Introduction
Transient water bodies
Osmotically peculiar habitats
Thermally extreme waters
Further reading
Terrestrial Life
Introduction
Ionic and osmotic adaptation and water balance
Thermal adaptation
Respiratory adaptation
Reproductive and life-cycle adaptation
Locomotion and mechanical adaptations
Sensory adaptations
Feeding and being fed on
Anthropogenic problems
Conclusions
Further reading
Extreme Terrestrial Habitats
Introduction
Hot and dry habitats: deserts
Very cold habitats
High-altitude habitats
Aerial habitats
Conclusions
Further reading
Parasitic Habitats
Introduction
Parasite environments
Basic parasite physiology
Reproduction and transmission
Parasite sensory abilities
Parasite regulation of host physiology
Biotic interactions: host-parasite conflicts
Conclusions
Further reading
References
Index