Skip to content

Relationships of Natural Enemies and Non-Prey Foods

Spend $50 to get a free DVD!

ISBN-10: 1402092342

ISBN-13: 9781402092343

Edition: 2009

Authors: Jonathan G. Lundgren

List price: $199.99
Blue ribbon 30 day, 100% satisfaction guarantee!
Out of stock
what's this?
Rush Rewards U
Members Receive:
Carrot Coin icon
XP icon
You have reached 400 XP and carrot coins. That is the daily max!

This book examines the intricate and diverse interactions between non-prey foods and natural enemies from both parties' perspectives, beginning at an organismal level and taking the reader on a journey that illustrates how these interactions are inextricably tied to the outcome of biological control programs targeting insects and weed seeds.
Customers also bought

Book details

List price: $199.99
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Springer London, Limited
Publication date: 2/27/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 454
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.892

Progress in Biological Control
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
The Functions of Non-Prey Foods in the Diets of Entomophagous Species
The Non-Prey Foods of Entomophagous Arthropods
The Functions Served by Non-Prey Foods
Dispersal
Reproduction
Other Roles of Non-Prey Foods in Natural Enemy Ecology
Closing the Introduction; Opening the Rest of the Book
Glucophagy
Interclass Differences in Sugar Sources
The Sugar Feeders
Predators
Arachnida: Araneage
Arachnida: Acari
Heteroptera
Coleoptera: Coccinellidae
Neuroptera: Chrysopidae
Diptera: Syrphidae
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Parasitoids
Parasitoid Diptera
Parasitoid Hymenoptera
Conclusions
Floral Nectar
Structure of Floral Nectaries
Nutrition and Chemistry of Floral Nectar
Factors That Influence the Production and Nutrition of Nectar
The Plant-Protective Benefits of Floral Nectar
Cost of Nectar Production
Defenses of Floral Nectar
Architectural Defenses Guarding Floral Nectar
Chemical Defenses of Floral Nectar
Conclusions
Extrafloral Nectar
Phylogenetic and Geographical Trends
Physiology and Nutritional Composition of EFN
Protective Benefits of EFNs
Temporal Occurrence of EFN
Regulation of EFN Production
Conclusion
Honeydew
Nutritional Value of Honeydew
Factors That Influence Honeydew Production
Honeydew in Mutualistic Interactions
Honeydew-Guarding Ants
Antinutrient Properties of Honeydew
The Downside of Honeydew: Its Kairomone Effects
Conclusion
Pollinivory
The Pollen Feeders
Predators
Arachnida: Araneae
Arachnida: Acari
Coleoptera: Carabidae
Coleoptera: Coccinellidae
Neuroptera: Chrysopidae
Heteroptera
Diptera: Syrphidae
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Mantodea: Mantidae
Parasitoids
Diptera
Hymenoptera
Conclusions
Adaptations to Pollen feeding
The Pollen-Feeding Process in Entomophages
Sensory Adaptations for Detecting Pollen
Vision
Chemical Cues
Morphological Adaptations
Setae
Mouthparts
Internal Anatomy
Adaptations to Digesting the Nutrients of Pollen
Enzymatic Adaptations to Digesting Pollen
Other Strategies for Digesting Pollen
Conclusion
Pollen Nutrition and Defense
Nutrition
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Vitamins
Inorganic Minerals
Defense
Floral Morphology
Structural Defenses
Antinutritive Qualities
Toxic Pollens
Conclusions
Granivory
The Seed Feeders
Carabidae
Adult Feeding Behavior
Granivory by Larvae
Formicidae
Harvester Ants
Gryllidae
Conclusions
Adaptations to Granivory
Morphological Adaptations to Seed Feeding
Adaptations in Adult Granivores
Adaptations in Larval Granivores
Seed Feeding Techniques
Seed Consumption Behavior
Internalizing the Seed
Digestive Enzymes
Seed Digestion in Harvester Ants
Nutrient Dissemination in Ant Colonies
Colony-Level Digestion of Seeds
Conclusions
Seed Nutrition and Defense
Seed Nutrition
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Minerals
Vitamins
Water
Caloric Content
Seed Defense
Seed Size
Mechanical Defenses of the Seed
External Structures
Seed Covering
Seed Chemistry
Mucilaginous Secretions
Conclusions
Seed-Associated Food Bodies
Diversity of Plants that Produce Seed-Associated Food Bodies
Physical Characteristics of Food Bodies
Chemical Composition of Food Bodies
Diplochory and Seed Cleaning
Ants
Other Entomophagous Insects
Ants as Dispersal Agents
Ant-Treated Seeds
Escaping Seed Mortality
Avoiding Competition
Providing Favorable Germination Sites
Invasive Species and Myrmecochorous Plants
Conclusions
Seed Preferences of Natural Enemies
Sensory Cues Involved in Seed Selection
Seed Traits Influencing Seed Selection
Seed Size
External Features
Seed Covering
Nutrition
Seed Viability
Grass Versus Broadleaf Species
The Dynamics of Preferences
Conclusions
Fungi and Microorganisms
Fungi as Food for Arthropods
Symbioses
Mycophagy
Fungi as Food for Natural Enemies
Water Content
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Vitamins and Minerals
Defensive Properties of Fungi
When Mycophagy Benefits the Fungus
Mycophagous Taxa
Arachnida: Araneae
Arachnida: Acari
Coleoptera: Carabidae
Coleoptera: Coccinellidae
Coleoptera: Staphylinidae
Neuroptera: Chrysopidae
Heteroptera
Diptera
Parasitoid Hymenoptera
Formicidae
Conclusions
Symbioses with Microorganisms
Contaminated Non-Prey Foods
Endophytes and Seeds
Nectar and Yeasts
Sooty Molds and Honeydew
Nutritional Symbionts of Entomophagous Species
Physiological Adaptations to Symbioses in Insects
Nutritional Functions of Microbial Symbioses
Natural Enemies and Microorganism Associations
Conclusions
Applied Aspects of Non-Prey Foods for Natural Enemies
Non-Prey Foods and Biological Control of Arthropods
Improving Biological Control of Arthropods Using Non-Prey Foods
Improving Natural Enemy Releases
Conservation Biological Control
Strategies for Incorporating Non-Prey Foods into Cropland
Land-and Farm-Scape Diversity as a Source of Non-Prey Foods
Integrating Vegetational Diversity Within Fields
Food Sprays
Complications with Utilizing Non-Prey Foods in Pest Management
Are Non-Prey Foods a Sink for Biological Control?
Caveats to Vegetational Diversity
Troubles with Food Sprays
Are Omnivorous Natural Enemies Pests?
Conclusion
Plant-Incorporated Pest Resistance and Natural Enemies
Host Plant Resistance
Nutritional Suitability of Resistant Plants to Natural Enemies
Intraspecific Variation in Synomone Production
Intraspecific Variation in Non-Prey Food Production
Systemic Insecticides
Systemic Insecticides in Non-Prey Foods
The Compatibility of Systemics and Natural Enemies
Insecticidal GM Crops
Transgenic Toxins in Non-Prey Foods
Bi-trophic Interactions of Natural Enemies and GM Crops
Conclusions
Biological Control of Weed Seeds in Agriculture Using Omnivorous Insects
Are Weed Seeds Limited?
Seed Production in Agriculture
Are Weeds Seed Limited?
Does Disturbance Associated with Crop Production Preclude Biological Control of Weed Seeds?
Is Biological and Habitat Diversity on Farms Sufficient to Support Biological Control of Weed Seeds?
The Effects of Landscape Diversity
Farm Practices that Promote Granivores
Community Interactions Among Granivores
Do Granivores Respond Positively to Increasing Seed Densities?
Characteristics of a Good Weed Seed Biological Control Agent
Traits of Biological Control Agents
Seed Burial
Conclusions: How Can Biological Control of Weed Seeds Be Promoted?
Conclusions and the Relative Quality of Non-Prey Foods for Natural Enemies
The Nutritional and Energetic Qualities of Prey and Non-Prey Foods
Relative Conservation Benefits of Different Non-Prey Foods
Re-evaluating Flower-Bound Resources
Attributes of Alternative Non-Prey Foods
Adaptations that Fuel Omnivory
Applied Aspects of Omnivory - Complexity Within Multitrophic Interactions
Concluding Remarks
References
Taxonomic Index
Subject Index