Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals

ISBN-10: 1402009216

ISBN-13: 9781402009211

Edition: 2002

Authors: Kofi Asante-Duah

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Description:

Risks to humans as a consequence of chemical exposure are a complex issue with worldwide implications, especially in our modern world. This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive, overview of the many aspcets relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems.
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Book details

List price: $89.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 9/30/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Coming to Terms with the Several Chemicals in Modern Society
The Nature of Chemical Hazards and Human Response from Exposure to Chemical Substances
Classification of Chemical Toxicity
Factors Influencing Chemical Toxicity to Humans and Human Response to Chemical Toxicants
Distribution and Storage of Toxicants in the Human Body
Scope of Chemical Hazard Problems: Lead Exposures as an Example
'The Dose Makes the Poison'--So, What Dose is Safe Enough?
Managing the Chemical Exposure Problem: The Need for Public Health Risk Assessment
Suggested Further Reading
Human Exposure to Chemicals
An Overview of Human Contact Sites and Target Organs Most Susceptible to Chemical Exposures
Fundamentals of Human Physiology
Target Organ Toxicity
General Types of Human Exposures
The Nature of Chemical Exposure Problems
Human Exposures to Airborne Chemical Toxicants
Water Pollution Problems and Human Exposures to Chemicals in Water
Contaminated Soil Problems and Human Exposures to Chemicals on Land
Human Exposures to Chemicals in Foods
Public Health and Socio-Economic Implications of Chemical Exposure Problems
The General Nature of Human Health Effects from Chemical Exposures
Assessing Public Health Risks
Suggested Further Reading
Principles and Concepts in Risk Assessment
Fundamental Principles of Chemical Hazard, Exposure, and Risk Assessments
The Nature of Chemical Hazard, Exposure, and Risk
Basis for Measuring Risks
What is Risk Assessment?
The Nature of Risk Assessments
Recognition of Uncertainty as an Integral Component of Risk Assessments
Fundamental Concepts in Risk Assessment Practice
Qualitative versus Quantitative Risk Assessments
Conservatisms in Risk Assessments
Individual versus Group Risks
Consideration of Risk Perception Issues
Risk Acceptability and Risk Tolerance Criteria
The de Minimis or 'Acceptable' Risk
General Attributes of Risk Assessment
The Purpose
The Attributes
Risk Assessment versus Risk Management
Risk Assessment as a Diagnostic Tool
Baseline Risk Assessments
Comparative Risk Assessments
Public Health Risk Assessments
Risk Assessment Implementation Strategy
Risk Assessment as an Holistic Tool for Environmental and Public Health Management
Suggested Further Reading
Principal Elements of a Public Health Risk Assessment for Chemical Exposure Problems
Characterization of Chemical Exposure Problems
Factors Affecting Exposure Characterization
The Risk Assessment Process
Hazard Identification and Accounting
Exposure-Response Evaluation
Exposure Assessment and Analysis
Risk Characterization and Consequence Determination
General Considerations in Public Health Risk Assessments
Determining Exposure-related Health Effects
Evaluating Factors that Influence Adverse Health Outcome
Human Health Risk Assessment in Practice
Suggested Further Reading
Chemical Hazard Determination
Chemical Hazard Identification: Sources of Chemical Hazards
Data Collection and Evaluation Considerations
Data Collection and Analysis Strategies
Reporting of 'Censored" Laboratory Data
Statistical Evaluation of Chemical Sampling Data
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics
Statistical Evaluation of 'Non-detect' Values
Selection of Statistical Averaging Techniques
Estimating Chemical Exposure Point Concentrations from Limited Data
Determination of the Level of Chemical Hazard
Suggested Further Reading
Exposure Assessment: Analysis of Human Intake of Chemicals
Fundamental Concepts and Requirements in the Human Exposure Assessment Process
Factors Affecting Human Exposure to Chemical Hazards
Development of Human Exposure Scenarios
Chemical Intake versus Dose
Chronic versus Subchronic Exposures
Incorporating Chemical Bioavailability Adjustments into Exposure Calculations
Chemical Transformation Products in Risk Assessment: Incorporating Chemical Degradation into Exposure Calculations
Human Exposure Quantification: The Exposure Estimation Model
Potential Receptor Inhalation Exposures
Potential Receptor Ingestion Exposures
Potential Receptor Dermal Exposures
Establishing 'Exposure Intake Factors' for Use in the Computation of Chemical Intakes and Doses
Illustrative Example for Inhalation Exposures
Illustrative Example for Ingestion Exposures
Illustrative Example for Dermal Exposures
Receptor Age Adjustments to Human Exposure Factors
Spatial and Temporal Averaging of Chemical Exposure Estimates
Suggested Further Reading
Evaluation of Chemical Toxicity
Fundamental Concepts and Principles in Toxicology
Mechanisms of Toxicity
Categorization of Human Toxic Effects from Chemical Exposures: Carcinogencity vs. Non-carcinogenicity
Manifestations of Toxicity
Dose-Response Relationships
Carcinogen Classification Systems
Weight-of-Evidence Classification
Strength-of-Evidence Classification
Evaluation of Chemical Toxicity
Hazard Effects Assessment
Dose-Response Assessment and Quantification
Determination of Toxicological Parameters for Human Health Risk Assessments
Toxicity Parameters for Non-carcinogenic Effects
Toxicity Parameters for Carcinogenic Effects
The Use of Surrogate Toxicity Parameters
Mechanisms of Action and the Determination of Human Health Hazard Effects
Suggested Further Reading
Chemical Risk Characterization and Uncertainty Analyses
Fundamental Issues and Considerations Affecting the Risk Characterization Process
Corrections for 'Non-Standard' Population Groups
Adjustments for Chemical Absorption: Administered vs. Absorbed Dose
Aggregate Effects of Chemical Mixtures and Multiple Exposures
Fundamental Considerations in the Health Assessment of Carcinogens
Carcinogenic Risk Effects: Estimation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human Health
Population Excess Cancer Burden
Carcinogenic Risk Computations: Illustration of the Processes for Calculating Carcinogenic Risks
Non-cancer Risk Effects: Estimation of Non-carcinogenic Hazards to Human Health
Chronic versus Subchronic Non-carcinogenic Effects
Non-carcinogenic Hazard Computations: Illustration of the Processes for Calculating Non-carcinogenic Hazards
Risk Presentation
Graphical Presentation of the Risk Summary Information
Uncertainty and Variability Issues in Risk Assessment
Types and Nature of Variability
Types and Nature of Uncertainty
Common Sources of Uncertainty in Public Health Endangerment Assessments
The Need for Uncertainty and Variability Analyses
Characterization of Data Variability and Uncertainties
Qualitative Analysis of Uncertainties
Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainties
Presenting and Managing Uncertain Risks: The Role of Sensitivity Analyses
Suggested Further Reading
Determination of 'Acceptable' and 'Safe' Levels of Chemical Exposure
Requirements and Criteria for Establishing Risk-Based Chemical Exposure Levels
Miscellaneous Methods for Establishing Environmental Quality Goals
Assessing the Safety of Chemicals in Consumer Products
Determination of 'Tolerable' Chemical Concentrations
Determination of Risk-Based Chemical Exposure Levels
RBCELs for Carcinogenic Constituents
RBCELs for Non-carcinogenic Effects of Chemical Constituents
Establishing Risk-Based Cleanup Limits for Contaminated Lands
Soil Chemical Limits for Carcinogenic Contaminants
Soil Chemical Limits for the Non-carcinogenic Effects of Site Contaminants
Establishing Risk-Based Cleanup Limits for Contaminated Waters
Water Chemical Limits for Carcinogenic Contaminants
Water Chemical Limits for the Non-carcinogenic Effects of Site Contaminants
A 'Preferable' Health-Protective Chemical Level
The Modified RBCEL for Carcinogenic Chemicals
The Modified RBCEL for Non-carcinogenic Constituents
Incorporating Degradation Rates into the Estimation of Environmental Quality Criteria
Public Health Goals vs. Risk-Based Chemical Exposure Levels
Suggested Further Reading
Design of Public Health Risk Management Programs
Risk Assessment as a Cost-Effective Tool in the Formulation of Public Health and Environmental Management Decisions
Comparative Risk Analysis: Application of Environmental Decision Analysis Methods to Public Health Risk Management Programs
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Risk-Cost-Benefit Optimization
Multi-attribute Decision Analysis and Utility Theory Applications
The General Nature of Risk Management Programs
A Framework for Risk Management Programs
Risk Communication as a Facilitator of Risk Management
Designing an Effectual Risk Communication Program
The Use of Contemporary Risk Mapping Tools: GIS in Public Health Risk Management Applications
Utilization of GIS in Risk Assessment and Environmental Management Programs
The Role of GIS Applications in Environmental Management
Suggested Further Reading
The Role of Risk Assessment in Public Health Policy Decisions
General Scope of Public Health Risk Assessment Practice
Illustrative Examples of Public Health Risk Assessment in Practice
The Public Health Risk Assessment Paradigm
Suggested Further Reading
List of References and Bibliography
Glossary of Selected Terms and Definitions
Selected Tools, Chemical Exposure Models, and Chemical Databases for Public Health Risk Policy Decision-Making
Toxicity Index Parameters for Selected Chemicals
Selected Units of Measurements & Noteworthy Expressions
Index
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