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Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia under the Impact of Human Activities

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ISBN-10: 1402003978

ISBN-13: 9781402003974

Edition: 2002

Authors: Nikolai Kharin

List price: $169.99
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Description:

This book is about desertification. The author describes vegetation degradation as a part of the integral process of desert ecosystem degradation in Central Asia under the impact of human activities. A connection is made between political and social factors and degradation of desert environments in historical perspective. Fragile desert ecosystems suffer first of all from the loss of vegetation. Wildlife is reduced, productivity of desert rangelands fall and the people also suffer from a shortage of food. The after-effect of this process is catastrophic, not only for the desert itself but also for the people living in the desert. Several measures are also discussed in the book for…    
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Book details

List price: $169.99
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 2/28/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 182
Size: 7.75" wide x 10.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430

Introduction
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD)
Global extension of desertification
Up-to-date situation
Change of biological diversity
Silphium
Degradation of the drylands of Asia
Classification of the drylands of Asia
Desertification of the drylands of Asia
Social sequences of desertification
Capital punishment for ecological crimes
Physical Environment and Agricultural Development
Introduction
Climate and desertification
Specific climatic features of Central Asia
Drought and desertification
Soils
Zonal classification of soils
Takyr and takyr-like soils
Hydromorphic soils
Soils of the irrigation zone
Soils of vertical zonation
Vegetation
Classification of vegetations
Vegetation of sandy deserts
Vegetation of clay deserts
Vegetation of gypsum deserts
Vegetation of salt deserts
Vegetation of loess deserts
Tugai vegetation
Mountain vegetation
Livestock raizing
Crop production
Irrigation agriculture
Dryland agriculture
Pollution of environment
Summary and conclusion
Historical Interaction of Desert and Society
The first ecological catastrophe in Central Asia
Land use and impact of war during the Middle Ages
Land reclamation, ecology and social life in Russian Turkestan
Russian conquest of Central Asia
Crop production
Traditional system of animal husbandry
Forestry
Khiva and Bukhara
Aborigines and newcomers in the desert
People of the past
A new commonwealth of "the Socialist nations"
We shall even control the drought!
The project of The Main Turkmen Canal
Transfer of river flow from Siberia
The dam of the Kara-Bogaz-Gol
Conclusion
Political, Economic and Social Impact of Land Degradation During the Soviet Period
Large leap - a Central Asian version
Agrarian revolution in Central Asia
Rooting out the survivals of the past from the people's mind
Improvement of public health care
Cadre determines all!
Change of social ecological conditions in rural area
"Pripiska" and its role in land degradation
Mass falsification of information, or "pripiska"
Cotton affair in Uzbekistan
Pripiska and corruption in other republics of Central Asia
Conclusion
Methodology of Desertification Assessment and Mapping
The concept and criteria of assessment
Conceptual approach for desertification assessment
Scales for desertification assessment
Criteria for assessment of vegetation degradation
Criteria for assessment of wind erosion
Criteria for assessment of water erosion
Criteria for assessment of water logging rangelands
Criteria of assessment of soil salinization
Criteria for assessment of inherent risk of desertification
Remote sensing indicators of desertification
Spectral reflectance of desert landscapes and optimal seasons of remote sensing
Specifications of remote sensing for desertification monitoring
Compilation of desertification map of Turkmenistan
Desertification map of Turkmenistan
Database on desertification
Use of NOAA/AVHRR data to study desertification
Multistage desertification monitoring
Conclusion
Status of Degraded Arid Lands
Change of biodiversity under the impact of desertification
Change of plant species composition
Plant species from The Red Data Book
Degradation of forests
Classification and exploitation of forests in Central Asia
Volume of nuts and other products stored in forests
Protective and sanitary functions of forests
Degradation of forests during the Soviet period
Degradation of desert rangelands
The main causes of desert rangeland degradation
Vegetation degradation around watering points
Regional features of rangeland degradation
Soil degradation
Environmental changes in the Aral Sea zone Wind erosion
Wind erosion
Water erosion
Waterlogging rangelands
Salinization of irrigated farmlands
Change of desert environment along the Karakum Canal bordering area
Summary and conclusion
Change of Wildlife
Animals from "The Red Data Book"
Protection of animals in the reserves
Dzheiran
Saigak
Kulan
Other species of wildlife stand also in need of protection
Rodents
Snakes
Fishes
Hunting and poaching
Conclusion
Accumulated Ecological Problems in New Independent Countries of Central Asia After 1991
Sovereignty, poverty and refugees
Desertification as one of Accumulated Ecological Problems (AEP)
New sovereign states of Central Asia
Corruption and shady economy
Refugees and displaced persons
Scarcity of water resources
Water resources of Central Asia
Projected water demand
Worsening ecological and social conditions in the areas affected by desertification
Fall of living standard
Desertification and human health
Tedzhen case study
Enormous economic and social damage caused by desertification
Conclusion
Convention to Combat Desertification - A Gleam of Hope at the End of the Tunnel
A concept for rehabilitation of degraded desert lands
Regeneration of forests
New approaches and arrangements
Sustainable development
What is better--top-down approach or bottom-up approach?
Capacity building
Promotion of new sources of income in agriculture
National Action Program to Combat Desertification (NAPCD) in Turkmenistan
Measures to combat desertification at national level
Development of National Monitoring System
Strategy of utilization of water resources
Conservation of biodiversity
Melioration of irrigated farm lands
Range management and improvement
Conservation of forests
Stabilization of moving sands
Creation of enabling environment for implementation of NAPCD
International cooperation
Summary and conclusion
Synthesis and Conclusion
Lessons of the past
Up--to--date situation
The requirements of future activities in desertification control
Glossary of Local and Special Terms
References
Index