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Description: Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 37. Chapters: Keiretsu, Kar shi, Japanese yen, Career woman, Kabushiki gaisha, Kaizen, Production leveling, Zaibatsu, Kanban, Muda, S kaiya, Salaryman, Mottainai, Poka-yoke, Meishi, Pecha Kucha, Office lady, G d gaisha, Continuous improvement process, Sarakin, Genchi Genbutsu, Mura, Kaikaku, Heijunka box, Y gen gaisha, Muri, Andon, Gemba, Intermediary corporation, Shihainin, Mochibun kaisha, Nenko System, Statutory auditor in Japanese corporations, Gembutsu, Tokumei kumiai, Nemawashi, Sh tengai, Sodanyaku, Machine orders. Excerpt: The Japanese yen en) (sign: Y; code: JPY) is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro and the pound sterling. As is common when counting in East Asia, large quantities of yen are often counted in multiples of 10,000 (man, ) in the same way as values in Western countries are often quoted in thousands. Yen is pronounced "en" in Japanese. The word (Shinjitai:, Traditional Chinese/Ky jitai: ) literally means "round object" in Japanese, as yuan does in Chinese or won in Korean. Originally, Chinese had traded silver in mass (see sycee) and when Spanish and Mexican silver coins arrived, they called them (silver round) for their circular shapes. The coins and the name also appeared in Japan. Later, the Chinese replaced with which has the same pronunciation in Mandarin (but not in Japanese). The Japanese preferred which remains until now (replacing with simplified form after World War II.) The spelling and pronunciation "yen" is standard in English. This is because mainly English speakers who visited Japan at the end of the Edo period to the early Meiji period spelled words this way. /wen/ in historical kana orthogra...