Contemporary Issues in Bioethics

ISBN-10: 1133315542

ISBN-13: 9781133315544

Edition: 8th 2014

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CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN BIOETHICS provides balanced coverage and detailed analysis of key topics in bioethics, including human reproduction; euthanasia and assisted suicide; genetics and genetic testing; the right to health care; organ donation and transplantation; human and animal research; as well as policy and planning for public health threats. With a diverse range of classic and contemporary essays and landmark court cases written by influential scholars and judges, this anthology will help you understand bioethics from a variety of perspectives.
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Book details

List price: $226.95
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 1/1/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 800
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.344
Language: English

LeRoy Walters is the Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. Professor of Christian Ethics at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University. He received his BA from a small Pennsylvania liberal-arts college, Messiah College, and a B.D. degree at the Associated Mennonite Seminaries. He then studied for two years in Germany, one year at the University of Heidelberg and one year at the Free University of Berlin. Walters returned to the United States and received his PhD in Christian ethics from Yale University. In 1971, Walters joined the newly-established Kennedy Institute of Ethics as the first faculty member appointed to a multi-year term. He served as director of the Institute from 1996-2000. His interests are in the ethical issues in human genetics, and since 2003 Dr. Walters has devoted major attention to Holocaust Studies and to the "euthanasia" program initiated in 1939 under National Socialism.

Jeffrey Kahn is Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy at Johns Hopkins' Berman Institute of Bioethics, and Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the university's Bloomberg School of Public Health. He received his undergraduate degree from UCLA, and graduate degrees from Johns Hopkins (MPH) and Georgetown University, where he received his Ph.D. in philosophy in 1989. He has held faculty positions in the medical schools at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the University of Minnesota, where he was professor and director in the Center for Bioethics from 1996-2011; he was visiting professor at the University of Zurich in 2009. Dr Kahn has served as staff or a member of a number of national commissions related to bioethics, including chairing the IOM Committee on the Necessity of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 2011. Dr. Kahn's research interest includes ethics of leading-edge research, ethics and genetics, and ethics and public health.

Anna Mastroianni is Professor of Law at the University of Washington's School of Law and Institute for Public Health Genetics. She has additional faculty appointments in the UW Department of Health Services, School of Public Health and in the Department of Bioethics & Humanities and the Department of Pediatrics in the School of Medicine. Professor Mastroianni received her B.A., B.S., and J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, and her M.P.H. from the University of Washington. She has worked in a number of legal and governmental policy positions in Washington D.C., including Associate Director of President Bill Clinton's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments and Study Director of the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences. Previously, she worked in the private practice of law in Washington, D.C.. She has served on a number of government and non-government advisory bodies, including the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. She has been nationally recognized for her contributions to health policy, law, and bioethics as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor Mastroianni's research interests are in the intersections of law, bioethics, public health and medicine, with a special emphasis on the legal and ethical challenges of research with human subjects and assisted reproductive technologies.

About the Authors
Ethical Theory and Bioethics
Fundamental Problems
The Study of Morality
Moral Dilemmas and Disagreements
The Problem of Relativism
The Acceptability of Moral Diversity and Moral Disagreement
Moral Justification
Types of Ethical Theory
Utilitarian Theories
Kantian Theories
Contemporary Challenges to the Traditional Theories
Virtue Ethics
The Ethics of Care
Ethical Principles
Respect for Autonomy
Policy and Law
Ethics and Public Affairs
Morality and Law
Legal and Moral Rights
Law, Authority, and Autonomy
The Health Care Provider-Patient Relationship?
Confidentiality of Medical Information
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, California Supreme Court
"A Defense of Unqualified Medical Confidentiality"
"The Legal and Ethical Fiction of 'Pure' Confidentiality"
Truth-Telling and Disclosure of Medical Error
"Telling the Truth to Patients with Cancer: What is the Truth?"
"A 62-Year-Old Woman With Skin Cancer Who Experienced Wrong-Site Surgery"
Informed Consent
Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals
"Physicians and Patients: A History of Silence"
"The Concept of Informed Consent"
"Against the Tide: Arguments against Respecting a Minor's Refusal of Efficacious Life-Saving Treatment"
Refusal of Treatment and Advance Directives
Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeals
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, United States Supreme Court
"Precommitment: A Misguided Strategy for Securing Death With Dignity"
Challenges In A Changing Health Care Environment
"Consent and Cultural Conflicts: Ethical Issues in Pediatric Anesthesiologists' Participation in Female Genital Cutting"
"Conscientious Refusal by Physicians and Pharmacists: Who is Obligated to do What, and Why?"
NHS Confederation, "Remote Control: The Patient-Practitioner Relationship in a Digital Age"
"Managed Care: Some Basic Ethical Issues"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 2
Genetics and Genomics
Genetics and Society
"Medicine, Eugenics, and the Supreme Court: From Coercive Sterilization to Reproductive Freedom"
"A Not-So-New Eugenics"
"What's Morally Wrong with Eugenics?"
World Health Organization, "Analysis: Impact of DNA Patents on Access to Genetic Tests and Genomic Science"
Patricia (Winnie) Roche, and Robert C. Green, "GINA, Genism, and Civil Rights"
Genetic Testing and Screening
"From Brute Luck to Option Luck? On Genetics, Justice, and Moral Responsibility in Reproduction"
"Ethics, Evidence, and Cost in Newborn Screening"
"The Advent of the 'Unpatients'"
"Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: Perceptions, Problems, and Policy Responses"
Applying Genetic Technologies
"Swabbing Students: Should Universities Be Allowed to Facilitate Educational DNA Testing?"
"The Ethics of Human Gene Transfer"
"The $1000 Genome: Ethical and Legal Issues in Whole Genome Sequencing of Individuals"
"Opposition to Transgenic Technologies: Ideology, Interests and Collective Action Frames"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 3
Assisted Reproduction and Reprogenetics
"The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty"
"A Philosopher Looks at Assisted Reproduction"
"Free Markets, Free Choice?: A Market Approach to Reproductive Rights"
"Self-Regulation, Compensation, and the Ethical Recruitment of Oocyte Donors"
"Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion: A Challenge to Practice and Policy"
"Genetic Intervention and the Morality of Inclusion"
The Problem of Justifying Abortion
"Why Abortion is Immoral"
"Understanding the 'Conservative' View on Abortion"
"A Defense of Abortion"
Landmark Court Cases On Abortion
United States Supreme Court
Planned Parenthood v. Casey, United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
Suggested Readings for Chapter 4
End Of Life
Landmark Legislation and Legal Cases
Ballot Measure 16: The Oregon Death with Dignity Act, "Proposed by Initiative Petition to be Voted on at the General Election"
Attorney General of New York et al. v. Timothy E. Quill et al, United States Supreme Court
Washington et al. v. Harold Glucksberg et al., United States Supreme Court
Attorney General et al. v. Oregon et al, United States Supreme Court
Moral Arguments About the Law
"The Rise and Fall of the 'Right' to Assisted Suicide"
"Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Common Law Roadmap"
"Hastened Death and the Regulation of the Practice of Medicine"
Moral Issues about Physician-Assisted Death
"Voluntary Active Euthanasia"
"Vulnerable People: Practical Rejoinders to Claims in Favor of Assisted Suicide"
"Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: Another Battle in the Culture Wars"
Alternatives To Physician-Assisted Death
"An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide"
"Physician-Assisted Suicide as a Last-Resort Option at the End of Life"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 5
Organ Transplantation
Deceased Donation: Definition of Death and Consent
"The Definition of Death: Problems for Public Policy"
"Harvesting the Living?: Separating "Brain Death" and Organ Transplantation"
"Donation After Circulatory Death: Burying the Dead Donor Rule"
"Why We Must Leave Our Organs to Others"
Allocation of Organs from Deceased Donors
"Putting Patients First in Organ Allocation: An Ethical Analysis of the U.S. Debate"
"Better Off Living-The Ethics of the New UNOS Proposal for Allocating Kidneys for Transplantation"
Innovative Approaches for Obtaining Organs
"The Ethical Limits in Expanding Living Donor Transplantation"
"Ethnocentrism Is an Unacceptable Rationale for Health Care Policy: A Critique of Transplant Tourism Position Statements"
"Organ Solicitation on the Internet: Every Man for Himself?"
"Nephrarious Goings On: Kidney Sales and Moral Arguments"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 6
Biomedical Research and Bioscience
Use of Animals in Research
"The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?"
Use of Humans in Research
The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, "The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research"
"Swinging on the Pendulum: Shifting Views of Justice in Human Subjects Research"
"The Dangers of Difference"
"The Havasupai Indian Tribe Case-Lessons for Research Involving Stored Biologic Samples"
"The Exploitation of the Economically Disadvantaged in Pharmaceutical Research"
"Ethical and Policy Implications of Clinical Drug Trials Conducted in Developing Countries"
Controversial Science and Medicine
"The Obligation to Prevent the Next Dual-Use Controversy"
"Interests, Identities, and Synthetic Biology"
"Cognitive Enhancement: Methods, Ethics, Regulatory Challenges"
"The Ethics of Regenerative Medicine: Beyond Humanism and Posthumanism"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 7
Justice and Health
Social Justice, Health Policy, and Public Health
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "The Right of Everyone to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health"
"Justice, Health, and Health Care"
"Responsibilities for Poverty-Related Ill Health"
"Social Justice, Inequality, and Systematic Disadvantage"
Just Health Care and the Right To Health Care
"Justice, the Basic Social Contract, and Health Care"
"The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care"
"Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude"
Priority Setting In Health Care and Public Health
"The Necessity of Rationing Health Care"
"Priority to the Worse Off in Health-Care Resource Prioritization"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 8
Public Health
Approaches To Public Health Ethics
"Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain"
"Human Rights and Public Health Ethics: Responding to the Global HTV/AIDS Pandemic"
Promotion and Prevention
"Persuasion and Coercion for Health: Ethical Issues in Government Efforts to Change Life-Styles"
"Guilt, Fear, Stigma and Knowledge Gaps: Ethical Issues, in Public Health Communication Interventions"
Management of Communicable Diseases
"Privacy, Democracy and the Politics of Disease Surveillance"
"Jacobson v. Massachusetts at 100 Years: Police Power and Civil Liberties in Tension"
"Restrictions on Liberty"
"Why We Should Eliminate Personal Belief Exemptions to Vaccine Mandates"
"Finding the Proper Balance between Freedom and Justice: Why We Should Not Eliminate Personal Belief Exemptions to Vaccine Mandates"
"The Ethics of Implementing Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Developed Countries"
Pandemic Preparedness and Response
"Ethics and Severe Pandemic Influenza: Maintaining Essential Functions through a Fair and Considered Response"
"Ethics, Pandemics, and the Duty to Treat"
Suggested Readings for Chapter 9
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