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Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry

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ISBN-10: 1119995957

ISBN-13: 9781119995951

Edition: 3rd 2012

Authors: T. D. H. Bugg

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Looking at enzymes from an organic chemistry perspective, this updated reference includes information on recent advances in our understanding of enzyme action; topical examples to illustrate key points; two–color figures of the active sites of enzymes discussed in the text to illustrate the interplay between enzyme structure and function; and end–of–chapter problems to allow readers to check their understanding of the material. This concise but comprehensive guide is essential for undergraduate and postgraduate students of organic, bio–organic, and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology.
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Book details

Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 7/20/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 290
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

Representation of Protein Three-Dimensional Structures
From Jack Beans to Designer Genes
The discovery of enzymes
The discovery of coenzymes
The commercial importance of enzymes in biosynthesis and biotechnology
The importance of enzymes as targets for drug discovery
AH Enzymes Are Proteins
The structures of the L-a-amino acids
The primary structure of polypeptides
_ Alignment of amino acid sequences
Secondary structures found in proteins
The folded tertiary structure of proteins
Enzyme structure and function
Membrane-associated enzymes
Enzymes Are Wonderful Catalysts
A thermodynamic model of catalysis
Proximity effects
The importance of transition state stabilisation
Acid/base catalysis in enzymatic reactions
Nucleophilic catalysis in enzymatic reactions
The use of strain energy in enzyme catalysis
Desolvation of substrate and active site nucleophiles
Catalytic perfection
The involvement of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis
Methods for Studying Enzymatic Reactions
Enzyme purification
Enzyme kinetics
The stereochemical course of an enzymatic reaction
The existence of intermediates in enzymatic reactions
Analysis of transition states in enzymatic reactions
Determination of active site catalytic groups
Hydrolytic and Group Transfer Enzymes
The peptidases
CASE STUDY: HIV-1 protease
Esterases and lipases
Acyl transfer reactions in biosynthesis (coenzyme A)
Enzymatic phosphoryl transfer reactions
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)
Enzymatic glycosyl transfer reactions
Methyl group transfer: use of S-adenosyl methionine and tetrahydrofolate coenzymes for one-carbon transfers
Enzymatic Redox Chemistry
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenases
Flavin-dependent dehydrogenases and oxidases
Flavin-dependent mono-oxygenases
CASE STUDY: Glutathione and trypanothione reductases
Deazaflavins and pterins
Iron-sulphur clusters
Metal-dependent mono-oxygenases
�-Ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases
Non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases
Enzymatic Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation
Carbon-carbon bond formation via carbanion equivalents
CASE STUDY: Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase
Claisen enzymes
Assembly of fatty acids and polyketides
Carboxylases: Use of biotin
Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)
Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase
Thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes
Carbon-carbon bond formation via carbocation intermediates
Terpene cyclases
Carbon-carbon formation through radical intermediates
Phenolic radical couplings
Enzymatic Addition/Elimination Reactions
Hydratases and dehydratases
Ammonia lyases
Elimination of phosphate and pyrophosphate
CASE STUDY: 5-Enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase
Enzymatic Transformations of Amino Acids
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent reactions at the �-position
CASE STUDY: Aspartate aminotransferase
Reactions at the �-and �-positions of amino acids
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase
N-Pyruvoyl-dependent amino acid decarboxylases
Imines and enamines in alkaloid biosynthesis
Cofactor-independent racemases and epimerases
Keto-enol tautomerases
Allylic isomerases
CASE STUDY: Chorismate mutase
Radicals in Enzyme Catalysis
-Vitamin B<sub>12</sub>-dependent rearrangements
The involvement of protein radicals in enzyme catalysis
S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent radical reactions
Biotin synthase and sulphur insertion reactions
Radical chemistry in DNA repair enzymes
Oxidised amino acid cofactors and quinoproteins
Non-Enzymatic Biological Catalysis
Catalytic RNA
Catalytic antibodies
Synthetic enzyme models
Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Rule for Stereochemical Nomenclature
Amino Acid Abbreviations
A Simple Demonstration of Enzyme Catalysis
Answers to Problems