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Vehicle Safety Communications Protocols, Security, and Privacy

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ISBN-10: 1118132726

ISBN-13: 9781118132722

Edition: 2012

Authors: Tao Zhang, Luca Delgrossi

List price: $174.95
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Description:

Owing to their safety applications, cooperative vehicle systems, which use sensors and wireless technologies to reduce traffic accidents, continue to be the focus of heavy research and development efforts around the world. Written by industry professionals, this book provides a systematic description of cooperative vehicle systems, discussing key technical issues in such systems, the latest advances in enabling technologies, and cutting-edge research trends. Coverage includes important technologies such as 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), on-board equipment (OBE), and roadside equipment (RSE).
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Book details

List price: $174.95
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/28/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 400
Size: 6.40" wide x 9.60" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.474
Language: English

Foreword
Foreword
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Traffic Safety
Traffic Safety Facts
Fatalities
Leading Causes of Crashes
Current Trends
European Union
Japan
Developing Countries
References
Automotive Safety Evolution
Passive Safety
Safety Cage and the Birth of Passive Safety
Seat Belts
Air Bags
Active Safety
Antilock Braking System
Electronic Stability Control
Brake Assist
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
Adaptive Cruise Control
Blind Spot Assist
Attention Assist
Precrash Systems
Cooperative Safety
References
Vehicle Architectures
Electronic Control Units
Vehicle Sensors
Radars
Cameras
Onboard Communication Networks
Controller Area Network
Local Interconnect Network
FlexRay
Media Oriented Systems Transport
Onboard Diagnostics
Vehicle Data
Vehicle Data Security
Vehicle Positioning
Global Positioning System
Galileo
Global Navigation Satellite System
Positioning Accuracy
References
Connected Vehicles
Connected Vehicle Applications
Hard Safety Applications
Soft Safety Applications
Mobility and Convenience Applications
Uniqueness in Consumer Vehicle Networks
Vehicle Communication Modes
Vehicle-to-Vehicle Local Broadcast
V2V Multihop Message Dissemination
Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Local Broadcast
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Bidirectional Communications
Wireless Communications Technology for Vehicles
References
Dedicated Short-Range Communications
The 5.9 GHz Spectrum
DSRC Frequency Band Usage
DSRC Channels
DSRC Operations
DSRC in the European Union
DSRC in Japan
DSRC Standards
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments Protocol Stack
International Harmonization
References
WAVE Physical Layer
Physical Layer Operations
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Modulation and Coding Rates
Frame Reception
PHY Amendments
Channel Width
Spectrum Masks
Improved Receiver Performance
PHY Layer Modeling
Network Simulator Architecture
RF Model
Wireless PHY
References
WAVE Media Access Control Layer
Media Access Control Layer Operations
Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
Hidden Terminal Effects
Basic Service Set
MAC Layer Amendments
MAC Layer Modeling
Transmission
Reception
Channel State Manager
Back-Off Manager
Transmission Coordination
Reception Coordination
Overhauled ns-2 Implementation
References
DSRC Data Rates
Introduction
Communication Density
Simulation Study
Broadcast Reception Rates
Channel Access Delay
Frames Reception Failures
Optimal Data Rate
Modulation and Coding Rates
Simulation Study
Simulation Matrix
Simulation Results
References
WAVE Upper Layers
Introduction
DSRC Multichannel Operations
Time Synchronization
Synchronization Intervals
Guard Intervals
Channel Switching
Channel Switching State Machine
Protocol Evaluation
Simulation Study
Simulation Scenarios
Simulation Results
Protocol Enhancements
WAVE Short Message Protocol
References
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications
Intersection Crashes
Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations
CICAS-V Design
CICAS-V Development
CICAS-V Testing
Integrated Safety Demonstration
Demonstration Concept
Hardware Components
Demo Design
References
Vehicle-to-Vehicle Safety Applications
Cooperation among Vehicles
V2V Safety Applications
V2V Safety Applications Design
Basic Safety Messages
Minimum Performance Requirements
Target Classifi cation
Vehicle Representation
Sample Applications
System Implementation
Onboard Unit Hardware Components
OBU Software Architecture
Driver-Vehicle Interface
System Testing
Communications Coverage and Antenna Considerations
Positioning
References
DSRC Scalability
Introduction
DSRC Data Traffi c
DSRC Safety Messages
Transmission Parameters
Channel Load Assessment
Congestion Control Algorithms
Desired Properties
Transmission Power Adjustment
Message Rate Adjustment
Simulation Study
Conclusions
References
Security and Privacy Threats and Requirements
Introduction
Adversaries
Security Threats
Send False Safety Messages Using Valid Security Credentials
Falsely Accuse Innocent Vehicles
Impersonate Vehicles or Other Network Entities
Denial-of-Service Attacks Specific to Consumer Vehicle Networks
Compromise OBU Software or Firmware
Privacy Threats
Privacy in a Vehicle Network
Privacy Threats in Consumer Vehicle Networks
How Driver Privacy can be Breached Today
Basic Security Capabilities
Authentication
Misbehavior Detection and Revocation
Data Integrity
Data Confidentiality
Privacy Protections Capabilities
Design and Performance Considerations
Scalability
Balancing Competing Requirements
Minimal Side Effects
Quantifi able Levels of Security and Privacy
Adaptability
Security and Privacy Protection for V2V Broadcast
Security and Privacy Protection for Communications with Security Servers
References
Cryptographic Mechanisms
Introduction
Categories of Cryptographic Mechanisms
Cryptographic Hash Functions
Symmetric Key Algorithms
Public Key (Asymmetric Key) Algorithms
Digital Signature Algorithms
The RSA Algorithm
The DSA Algorithm
The ECDSA Algorithm
ECDSA for Vehicle Safety Communications
Message Authentication and Message Integrity Verifi cation
Authentication and Integrity Verifi cation Using Hash Functions
Authentication and Integrity Verifi cation Using Digital Signatures
Diffi e-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol
The Original Diffie-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol
Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES)
The Basic Idea
Scheme Setup
Encrypt a Message
Decrypt a Message
Performance
References
Public Key Infrastructure for Vehicle Networks
Introduction
Public Key Certificates
Message Authentication with Certificates
Certifi cate Revocation List
A Baseline Reference Vehicular PKI Model
Confi gure Initial Security Parameters and Assign Initial Certificates
Vehicles Create Their Private and Public Keys
Certificate Authority Creates Private and Public Keys for Vehicles
Acquire New Keys and Certifi cates
Distribute Certifi cates to Vehicles for Signature Verifications
Detect Misused Certifi cates and Misbehaving Vehicles
Local Misbehavior Detection
Global Misbehavior Detection
Misbehavior Reporting
Ways for Vehicles to Acquire CRLs
How Often CRLs should be Distributed to Vehicles?
PKI Hierarchy
Certifi cate Chaining to Enable Hierarchical CAs
Hierarchical CA Architecture Example
Privacy-Preserving Vehicular PKI
Quantitative Measurements of Vehicle Anonymity
Quantitative Measurement of Message Unlinkability
References
Privacy Protection with Shared Certificates
Shared Certificates
The Combinatorial Certificate Scheme
Certificate Revocation Collateral Damage
Certified Intervals
The Concept of Certified Interval
Certified Interval Produced by the Original Combinatorial Certificate Scheme
Reduce Collateral Damage and Improve Certified Interval
Reduce Collateral Damage Caused by a Single Misused Certificate
Vehicles Become Statistically Distinguishable When Misusing Multiple Certificates
The Dynamic Reward Algorithm
Privacy in Low Vehicle Density Areas
The Problem
The Blend-In Algorithm to Improve Privacy
References
Privacy Protection with Short-Lived Unique Certificates
Short-Lived Unique Certificates
The Basic Short-Lived Certificate Scheme
The Problem of Large CRL
Anonymously Linked Certificates to Reduce CRL Size
Certificate Tags
CRL Processing by Vehicles
Backward Unlinkability
Reduce CRL Search Time
Unlinked Short-Lived Certificates
Reduce the Volume of Certificate Request and Response Messages
Determine the Number of Certificates for Each Vehicle
References
Privacy Protection with Group Signatures
Group Signatures
Zero-Knowledge Proof of Knowledge
The ACJT Group Signature Scheme and its Extensions
The ACJT Group Signature Scheme
The Challenge of Group Membership Revocation
ACJT Extensions to Support Membership Revocation
The CG Group Signature Scheme with Revocation
The Short Group Signatures Scheme
The Short Group Signatures Scheme
Membership Revocation
Group Signature Schemes with Verifier-Local Revocation
References
Privacy Protection against Certificate Authorities
Introduction
Basic Idea
Baseline Split CA Architecture, Protocol, and Message Processing
Split CA Architecture for Shared Certifi cates
Split CA Architecture for Unlinked Short-Lived Certificates
Acquire One Unlinked Certifi cate at a Time
Assign Batches of Unlinked Short-Lived Certifi cates
Revoke Batches of Unlinked Certifi cates
Request for Decryption Keys for Certificate Batches
Split CA Architecture for Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates
Assign One Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificate at a Time
Assign Batches of Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates
Revoke Batches of Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates
Request for Decryption Keys for Certificate Batches
References
Comparison of Privacy-Preserving Certificate Management Schemes
Introduction
Comparison of Main Characteristics
Misbehavior Detection
Abilities to Prevent Privacy Abuse by CA and MDS Operators
Summary
IEEE 1609.2 Security Services
Introduction
The IEEE 1609.2 Standard
Certificates and Certificate Authority Hierarchy
Formats for Public Key, Signature, Certificate, and CRL
Public Key Formats
Signature Formats
Certificate Format
CRL Format
Message Formats and Processing for Generating Encrypted Messages
Sending Messages
Request Certifi cates from the CA
Request and Processing CRL
What the Current IEEE 1609.2 Standard Does Not Cover
No Support for Anonymous Message Authentication
Separate Vehicle-CA Communication Protocols Are Required
Interactions and Interfaces between CA Entities Not Addressed
References
4G for Vehicle Safety Communications
Introduction
Long-Term Revolution (LTE)
LTE for Vehicle Safety Communications
Issues to Be Addressed
LTE for V2I Safety Communications
LTE for V2V Safety Communications
LTE Broadcast and Multicast Services
References
Glossary
Index