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Extruded Cables for High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission Advances in Research and Development

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ISBN-10: 1118096665

ISBN-13: 9781118096666

Edition: 2013

Authors: Massimo Marzinotto, Giovanni Mazzanti

List price: $150.00
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Description:

Despite the ever–growing number of HVDC link projects being proposed or started all over the world, there are no books that address fully the technical and economical aspects of this technology. This book fills the gap in the field, providing power cable engineers with complete, up–to–date guidance on HVDC cable lines with extruded insulation. It covers design and engineering techniques for cable lines, insulation materials, and accessories, as well as cable performance and life–span and reliability issues. The fundamentals of HVDC cable transmission theory are also discussed.
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Book details

List price: $150.00
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/6/2013
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 384
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

Foreword
Acknowledgments
List of Symbols and Acronyms
Introduction
Introduction
References
Fundamentals of HVDC Cable Transmission
Historical Evolution of HVDC Power Transmission
Economic Comparison Between HVAC and HVDC Transmission Systems
Configurations and Operating Modes of HVDC Transmission Systems
CSC and VSC Converters
Operation of a Line-Commutated Current Source Converter (LCC-CSC)
Operation of a Self-Commutated Voltage Source Converter (VSC)
CSC versus VSC: How Do They Affect Cable Insulation?
Cables for HVDC Transmission
Underground and Undersea Cable Transmission
Different HVDC Cable Types
Mass-Impregnated Nondraining (MIND) Cables
Oil-Filled (OF) Cables
Polypropylene Paper Laminate (known under a few different acronyms, i.e., PPL, MI-PPL, PPLP) or Lapped Thin-Film Insulated Cable
Polymer-Insulated or Extruded-Insulation Cable
HVDC Cable Insulation
Oil-Paper (or Lapped) Insulation
Extruded Insulation
References
Main Principles of HVDC Extruded Cable Design
Differences Between HVAC and HVDC Extruded Cables
Differences in the Structure
Typical Formations of HVDC Extruded Cables
Conductor
Inner Semiconductive Layer
Insulation Layer
Outer Semiconductive Layer
Metallic Screen
Water Sealing (or Blocking) Systems
Protective Thermoplastic Sheath
Armoring
Jacketing (or External Sheath)
Differences in the Electric Field Distribution
Electric Field Distribution Within the Insulation of an HVAC Cable
Steady Electric Field Distribution Within the Insulation of an HVDC Cable
Transient DC Field Distribution
Time to Reach Steady-State DC Field Distribution
Definition of Operational Stages of HVDC Cables
Field Distributions in the Various Stages
Stage I: Raising the Voltage
Stage II: After Raising the Voltage
Stage III: Steady Resistive Field and Relevant Space Charge
Stage IIIa: After Switching off the Load
Stage IV: After Switching off the Voltage
Stages at Polarity Reversal
Influence of the Environment Temperature on the Steady Field of an HVDC Extruded Cable
Impulses Superimposed onto a DC Voltage
Statistical Approach to Impulse Voltage Test Levels for HVDC Cables
Modification of the Stress Distribution by Trapped Space Charge Effects
Dielectrics for HVDC Extruded Cables
Morphology of Polyethylene and Its Influence on Electrical Properties
References
Space Charge in HVDC Extruded Insulation: Storage, Effects, and Measurement Methods
Space Charge in HVDC Cable Insulation
Charge Injection and Transport in Insulating Polymers
Low-Field Conduction Mechanisms
Ohmic Conduction
Ionic Conduction
High-Field Conduction Mechanisms
Charge Injection From Electrodes
Bulk-Controlled High-Field Conduction Mechanisms
Space-Charge Accumulation
Charge Generation
Electronic Charge Injection
Field-Assisted Thermal Ionization of Impurities
Spatially Inhomogeneous Electric Polarization
Steady Direct Current Coupled with a Spatially Varying Ratio of Permittivity to Conductivity
Charge Trapping
Physical Defects
Chemical Defects
Review of Space-Charge Measurement Methods for HVDC Extruded Insulation
Thermal Methods
Thermal Pulse Method
Laser Intensity Modulation Method (LBVIM)
Thermal Step Method (TSM)
Pressure Pulse Methods
Pressure Wave Propagation Method
Laser-Induced Pressure Pulse (LIPP) Method
Pulsed Electroacoustic (PEA) Method
Techniques for Estimating the Trap Depth and the Mobility of Space Charges
Up-to-Date Developments of the Best Techniques for Measuring Space Charges
Space-Charge Measurements in HVDC Cables with the TSM Technique
Experimental Facility
Cable 1: Under Field Measurements
Study of Cable 2: Volt-Off Measurements
Space-Charge Measurements in HVDC Cables with the PEA Technique
Space-Charge Measurements Related to the Semicon-Insulation Interface
Space-Charge Measurements Related to the Insulation-Insulation Interface
Space-Charge Measurements Related to the Effect of Temperature Gradient
Recent Developments in the Pressure Wave Propagation Method
Final Comparison between the Best Space-Charge Measurement Methods for Power Cables: PEA versus TSM
References
Improved Design of HVDC Extruded Cable Systems
R&D Trends in Improving Extruded Polymeric Insulation for HVDC Cables
Problems to be Solved for Improving HVDC Extruded Insulation
Optimum Characteristics of Polymeric Insulating Materials for HVDC Cables
Historical Development Activities of HVDC Extruded Insulation
Use of AC LDPE.XLPE, or HDPE Cable Compounds for HVDC Applications without any Modifications
Stress Inversion-Free or -Limited DC Cable
Suppression of Space Charge in the Polymer
Modification of the Characteristics, of the Electrode-Insulation Interfaces
Traditional Approaches
Effect of Surface Fluorination on the Space-Charge Behavior of PE
Modification of Bulk Insulation Characteristics
Blending PE with Another Polymer
Using Additives or Fillers in PE-Based Compounds
Additives and the Morphology of Polyethylene
Effect of Nanostructuration
Further Requirements for the Improvement of HVDC Extruded Cable Design
Improved Design of HVDC Extruded Cables
First Example of Improved Design of HVDC Extruded Cables
Cable Design Relevant to the Gotland Project
Cable Design Relevant to the Murraylink Project
Cable Design Relevant to the Trans Bay Project
Other Improved Cable Designs
Improved Design of Accessories for HVDC Extruded Cable Systems
Accessories Design Relevant to the Gotland Project
Joints for the Gotland Project
Terminations for the Gotland Project
Accessories Design Relevant to the Murraylink Project
Joints for the Murraylink Project
Terminations for the Murraylink Project
State of the Art of HVDC Extruded Cable Accessories
Prefabricated Joints
Terminations
Electric Fields in Accessories
Installation of Accessories
Improved Cable System Design
Testing of HVDC Extruded Cable Systems
References
Life Modeling of HVDC Extruded Cable Insulation
Fundamentals of Life Modeling and Reliability Estimates of Power Cables
Traditional Approach to Insulation Life Modeling
Probabilistic Framework of HVDC Extruded Insulation Life Modeling
Basic Aspects of Probabilistic Life Modeling
Probabilistic Life Models for HVDC Extruded Cable Insulation
Life Models for HVDC Extruded Cables under Single and Combined Stress
Space-Charge-Based Life Models for Extruded HVDC Cables
Field-Limited Space-Charge Model
Space-Charge DMM Model
The DC DMM Model
Application of the DC DMM Model to HVDC Extruded Insulation
From Space Charges to Partial Discharges: Life Model Based on Damage Growth from Microvoids
Charge Storage at PE-Void Interface and Injection into the Void
Hot-Electron Avalanche Formation inside the Void
Damage at Void-PE Interface Growing into the Polymer
Fitting the Model to Extruded HVDC Insulation Times to Failure
Space Charge: Cause or Effect of Aging?
References
Main Realizations of HVDC Extruded Cable Systems in the World
Overview
Extruded Systems in Service
Gotland Link
Murraylink
Cross Sound Cable (CSC)
Troll A Platform
Estlink
BorWin 1
The Trans Bay Project
The Hokkaido-Honshu Interne
References
Index