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Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene Properties, Catalysts, Processes

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ISBN-10: 1118062760

ISBN-13: 9781118062760

Edition: 2012

Authors: Dennis B. Malpass, Elliot Band

List price: $105.00
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Description:

The intent of this book is to provide chemists, engineers and students an introduction to the essentials of industrial polypropylene—what it is, how it’s made and fabricated, the markets it serves and its environmental fate. Technical aspects are described in a straightforward way with minimal discussion of esoteric theory such that a person with even a modicum of training in chemistry should be able to grasp. The purpose is to show practical, down-to-earth interpretations of polypropylene technology.Specifically, the book elucidates;Ziegler-Natta catalystsPropylene polymerization catalystsSingle Site catalysts and cocatalystsPolypropylene manufacturing and processingCatalysts synthesis in the laboratory\ TestingVarious downstream aspects of industrial polypropylene such as biopolymers alternatives and additives.
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Book details

List price: $105.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 7/24/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 360
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.386
Language: English

List of Tables
List of Figures
Preface
Introduction to Polymers of Propylene
Origins of Crystalline Polypropylene
Basic Description of Polypropylene
Types and Nomenclature of Polypropylene
Molecular Weight of Polypropylene
Transition Metal Catalysts for Propylene Polymerization
Questions
References
Polymer Characterization
Introduction
Polymer Tacticity
Introduction
Measurement of Polymer Microtacticity by <sup>13</sup>C NMR
Total Isotactic Index
Total Xylene Insolubles
Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution
Introduction
Gel Permeation Chromatography
Intrinsic Viscosity
Melt Flow Rate
Polymer Bulk Density
Introduction
Measurement Method
Particle Size Distribution and Morphology
Introduction
Measurement Method
Questions 54 References
Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
A Brief History of Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
Definitions and Nomenclature
Characteristics of Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
Early Commercial Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
Supported Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
Prepolymerized Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
Mechanism of Ziegler-Natta Polymerization
Questions and Exercises
References
Propylene Polymerization Catalysts
Introduction
Zero Generation Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
First Generation ZN Catalysts
Second Generation ZN Catalysts
Third Generation ZN Catalysts
Fourth Generation ZN Catalysts
Fifth Generation ZN Catalysts
ZN Catalysts for Atactic Polypropylene
Metallocenes and Other Single Site Catalysts
Cocatalysts for ZN Catalysts
Kinetics and ZN Catalyst Productivity
Concluding Remarks
Questions
References
Aluminum Alkyls in Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
Organometalhc Compounds
Characteristics of Aluminum Alkyls
Basic Physical and Chemical Properties
Hydride Content
Other R<sub>3</sub>Al Impurities
Analysis of Aluminum Alkyls
Impurities Resulting from Exposure to Minute Concentrations of Water and Oxygen
Assays of Aluminum Alkyls
Reactivity with Organic Substrates
Reactivity with CO<sub>2</sub> and CO
Distillation
Association of Aluminum Alkyls
Storage Stability
Thermal Stability
Production of Aluminum Alkyls
Reducing Agent for the Transition Metal
Alkylating Agent for Creation of Active Centers
Scavenger of Catalyst Poisons
Chain Transfer Agent
Safety and Handling of Aluminum Alkyls
Questions
References
Single Site Catalysts and Cocatalysts
Introduction
The Structures of Metallocenes and SSCs
Non-Metallocene Polymerization Catalysts
Cocatalysts for SSCs
Aluminoxanes
Organoboron Cocatalysts
Activated Supports
Supports for SSCs
Characteristics of mPP
Selected Applications of mPP Resins
Medical Applications
Thin Wall Food Containers
High Clarity Bottles for Personal Care
Waxes
New Resins from Hybrid Catalysts to Make Polypropylene Alloys
Metallocene Synthesis
Syndiotactic Polypropylene
Commercial Reality and Concluding Remarks
Questions
References
Catalyst Manufacture
Introduction
Development of the Manufacturing Process
Chemistry of Catalyst Manufacture
Raw Materials Storage and Handling
Catalyst Preparation
Catalyst Drying
Catalyst Packaging
Recovery and Recycle of Spent Solvents
Prepolymerization at the Catalyst Manufacturing Plant
Plant Size
Site Safety
Quality Control and Specifications
Diagram of a Hypothetical Plant
Custom Manufacture
Brief Consideration of Metallocene Catalyst Manufacture
Concluding Remarks
Questions
References
An Overview of Industrial Polypropylene Processes
Introduction
Slurry (Suspension) Processes
Bulk ("Liquid Pool") Process
"Loop Slurry" Process (Chevron Phillips Chemical)
Gas Phase Processes
Solution Process
Hybrid Processes
Kinetics and Reactivity Ratios
Emergency Stoppage of Polymerization
Questions
References
Laboratory Catalyst Synthesis
Introduction
General Synthesis Requirements
Equipment Requirements
Synthesis Schedule
Handling TiCl<sub>4</sub>
Handling Diethylaluminum Chloride
Spent Liquids
Synthetic Procedure for Fourth Generation Supported Catalyst
Introduction
Procedure
Synthetic Procedure for Second Generation Precipitated TiCl<sub>3</sub> Catalyst
Introduction
Procedure
Catalyst Analysis
Questions
References
Polymerization Catalyst Testing
Introduction
Facility Requirements
The Autoclave
Key Equipment Items
Raw Materials
Polymerization Conditions
Autoclave Preparation
Polymerization Test Procedure
Reproducibility
Testing Metallocene Catalysts
Questions
References
Downstream Aspects of Polypropylene
Introduction
Additives
Fabrication Methods
Biopolymers
Environmental
Questions
References
Overview of Polypropylene Markets
Introduction
The Supply Chain for Polypropylene
The Global Polypropylene Market
Questions
References
The Future of Polypropylene
Introduction
Key Growth Markets for Polypropylene
Polypropylene and Free Markets
Questions
References
Index