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X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy An Introduction to Principles and Practices

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ISBN-10: 1118062531

ISBN-13: 9781118062531

Edition: 2012

Authors: Paul van der Heide

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Description:

This book introduces readers interested in the field of X–ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to the practical concepts in this field. The book first introduces the reader to the language and concepts used in this field and then demonstrates how these concepts are applied. Including how the spectra are produced, factors that can influence the spectra (all initial and final state effects are discussed), how to derive speciation, volume analysed and how one controls this (includes depth profiling), and quantification along with background substraction and curve fitting methodologies. This is presented in a concise yet comprehensive manner and each section is prepared such that they can be read independently of each other, and all equations are presented using the most commonly used units. Greater emphasis has been placed on spectral understanding/interpretation. For completeness sake, a description of commonly used instrumentation is also presented. Finally, some complementary surface analytical techniques and associated concepts are reviewed for comparative purposes in stand–alone appendix sections.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 1/27/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 264
Size: 6.43" wide x 9.62" long x 0.88" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
List of Constants
Introduction
Surface Analysis
XPS/ESCA for Surface Analysis
Historical Perspective
Physical Basis of XPS
Sensitivity and Specificity of XPS
Summary
Atoms, Ions, And Their Electronic Structure
Atoms, Ions, and Matter
Atomic Structure
Electronic Structure
Quantum Numbers
Stationary-State Notation
Stationary-State Transition Notation
Stationary States
Spin Orbit Splitting
Summary
Xps Instrumentation
Prerequisites of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
Vacuum
Vacuum Systems
X-ray Sources
Standard Sources
Monochromated Sources
Gas Discharge Lamps
Synchrotron Sources
Electron Sources
Thermionic Sources
Ion Sources
EI Sources
Energy Analyzers
CMA
CHA
Modes of Operation
Energy Resolution
Detectors
EMs
Imaging
Serial Imaging
Parallel Imaging
Spatial Resolution
Summary
Data Collection and Quantification
Analysis Procedures
Sample Handling
Data Collection
Energy Referencing
Charge Compensation
X-ray and Electron-Induced Damage
Photoelectron Intensities
Photoelectron Cross Sections
The Analyzed Volume
Electron Path Lengths
Takeoff Angle
The Background Signal
Quantification
Information as a Function of Depth
Opening up the Third Dimension
AR-XPS and Energy-Resolved XPS
Sputter Depth Profiling
Summary
Spectral Interpretation
Speciation
Photoelectron Binding Energies
The Z + 1 Approximation
Initial State Effects
Final State Effects
The Auger Parameter
Curve Fitting
Summary
Some Case Studies
Overview
Iodine Impregnation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT)
Analysis of Group IIA-IV Metal Oxides
Analysis of Mixed Metal Oxides of Interest as SOFC Cathodes
Analysis of YBCO and Related Oxides/ Carbonates
Summary
Appendices
Periodic Table of the Elements
Binding Energies (B.E.<sub>Xps</sub> Or B.E.<sub>Xrf</sub>) of the Elements
1s-3s, 2p-3p, and 3d Values
4s-5s, 4p-5p, and 4d Values
Some Quantum Mechanics Calculations of Interest
Some Statistical Distributions of Interest
Gaussian Distribution
Poisson Distribution
Lorentzian Distributions
Some Optical Properties of Interest
Chromatic Aberrations
Spherical Aberrations
Diffraction Limit
Some Other Spectroscopic/Spectrometric Techniques of Interest
Photon Spectroscopies
IR, RAIRS, ATR, and DRIFTS
Raman, SERS, and TERS
EDX and WDX
XRF and TXRF
Electron Spectroscopies
UPS
AES
EELS, REELS, and HREELS
Ion Spectroscopies/Spectrometries
SIMS
TAP
Ion Scattering Methods
Some Microscopies of Interest
SEM
HIM
TEM
SPM (AFM and STM)-Based Techniques
Some Reflection/Diffraction Techniques of Interest
XRD
GID
XRR
LEED
RHEED
Technique Abbreviations List
Instrument-Based Abbreviations
Glossary of Terms
Questions and Answers
Xps Vendors
References
Index