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Introduction to Adaptive Lenses

ISBN-10: 1118018990

ISBN-13: 9781118018996

Edition: 2012

Authors: Shin-Tson Wu, Hongwen Ren

List price: $125.00
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Description:

This is the first book to address the fundamental operation principles, device characteristics, and potential applications of various types of adaptive lenses. Setting out from basic material properties to device structures and performance, this volume covers solid lens, membrane lens, electro-wetting lens, dielectric lens, mechanical-wetting lens, and liquid crystal lenses. Potential applications of these adaptive lenses are also investigated, including image processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. This is an important reference for optical engineers, research scientists, graduate students and undergraduate seniors.
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Book details

List price: $125.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited
Publication date: 4/24/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 286
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

Preface
Optical Lens
Introduction
Conventional Lens
Refraction of Light
A Simple Lens
A Compound Lens
Aberration and Resolution
Paraxial Optics
Aberration
Resolution
Merits and Demerits of Solid Lens
Adaptive Optical Lenses
Eye Structure
Lens Character
Performances
The Eye-Inspired Lens
Homework Problems
References
Elastomeric Membrane Lens
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Membrane
PDMS Chemical Structure
Basic Material Properties
Optical Transmission
Fabrication of PDMS Membrane
Device Structure
Requirements of the Liquid
Surface Configuration
PDMS Lens Cell Fabrication
Performance Evaluation Method
Actuators
Syringe Pump
Motor Pumps
Piezoelectric Linear Actuator
Artificial Muscles
Voice Coil Actuator (VCA)
Other Liquid Lenses
PDMS Microlens Array
Device Configuration
Fabrication Method
Performance Evaluation
Solid PDMS Lenses
Squeezing the Lens's Border
Elongating the Lens's Diameter
Hybrid Lens System
Summary and Technical Challenges
Homework Problems
References
Electrowetting Lens
Introduction
Surface Tension
Contact Angle and Wetting
Basic Theory of Electrowetting
Droplet Deformation
Electrowetting Lens
Shape of Droplet Surface
Focal Length Equation
Tunable Electrowetting Lens
Desired Properties of the Liquids
Singlet Lens with Two Liquids
Lens Cell 1
Lens Cell 2
Microlens Array
Remaining Challenges
Summary
Homework Problems
References
Dielectrophoretic Lens
Introduction
Dielectrophoretic Force
Dielectric Liquid Materials
Singlet Lens
Continuous Flat Electrodes
Hole Patterned Electrode
Well-Shaped Electrode
Fringing Field
Microlens Array
Switchable Lens
Operation Principle
Beam Diffuser
Light Shutter
Display
Noncontact Electro-optic Inspection
Gravity Effect
Measurement Method
Operation Principles
Experimental Results
Applications
Summary
Homework Problems
References
Other Adaptive Liquid Lenses
Introduction
Mechanical-Wetting Lens
Out-of-Plane Tuning
Hydrodynamic Liquid-Air In-Plane Tuning
Hydrodynamic Liquid-Liquid In-Plane Tuning
Ferrofluidic Transducer Lens
Ferrofluidic Material
First Example
Second Example
Third Example
Electromagnetic Actuator Lens
Stimuli Response Hydrogel Lens
Acoustic Liquid Lens
Acoustic Radiation Force
Structure of an Acoustic Lens
Lens Performance
Electrochemical Actuation Lens
Electrostatic Force Actuation
Summary
Homework Problems
References
Liquid Crystal Lens
Introduction
Physical Properties
Phase Transitions and Order Parameter
Rod-like Structure
Dipole Moment
Optical Anisotropy
Dielectric Anisotropy
LC Device
Device Fabrication
Optical Path Difference (OPD)
Focal Length Equation
Curved Electrode
Curved Electrode and Nonuniform Cell Gap
Curved Electrode and Planar Cell Gap
Strip-Patterned Electrode
Hole-Patterned Electrode
Hole Pattern Inside the Lens Cell
Hole Pattern Outside the Lens Cell
Magnification of LC Lens System
Modal Addressing
Cylindrical LC Lens
Polymer-LC Composite Lens
Anisotropic Phase Separation
Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal
Polymer Network Liquid Crystal (PNLC)
Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Lens
Diffractive LC Lens
LC Microlens Array
Lenticular Microlens Array
Microlens Array with Curved Electrode
Polymer-Stabilized LC Microlens Array
Summary
Homework Problems
References
Index